An Investigation into the Impact of Application of Mathematics in Entrepreneurial Skills Development
BY
Menkiti Chika Cordelia Department of Mathematics, Nwafor Orizu College of Education Nsugbe +2347039880920fvaamd@gmail.com
and
Uwandu Simon Onyinyechukwu Department of Mathematics Professor Enoch Anyankwu Christ Education College , Owerri Imo State
+2347033572474 simononyinyel@gmail.com
Abstract
This study focused on the impact of the application of mathematics in entrepreneurial skill development The study was conducted in in Idemili North Local government Area Anambra State. Mostly people in Idemili North Local Government Area are known for their engagement with small and large skilled business for earning a living. A survey research design was used for the study .The Taro Yamane formula was used to select a sample of four hundred (400) entrepreneur from major commercial towns in the Local Government Area. The instrument of study was Ten (10) items structured questionnaire .The instrument was validated by two lecturers from mathematics department and measurement and evaluation unit of psychology department of Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe. The reliability was established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient(r) and a value of 0.85was obtained which was considered high enough. Three (3) research questions and two (2) research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research questions were analyzed using percentages(%)and the research hypothesis was tested using Chisquare(X^{2}) statistic at 0.05 level of significance. In light of the findings, recommendations were made that application of mathematics in entrepreneurial development studies essential for rapid and sustainable economic growth and development; reduction in unemployment and poverty.
Keywords: Mathematics, Entrepreneur.
Introduction
An entrepreneur is a person with foresight, far sight; mind sight and insight into business ventures (Igbongidi, 2010). Entrepreneur is person who discovers new method and new market of production. This means that an entrepreneur takes calculated risks, enjoys business challenges and sees these challenges as stepping stones toward success.
Entrepreneur refers to as people that have willingness to take risks while others stand to talk, identify opportunities to which others are blind and develop optimum confidence in themselves well beyond that of others. It is also described with the following attributes: gogetter, business superstar, dreamer, visionary, innovation, inventor, creator, translator, achiever, Seer risks taken identifier, building promoter, initiator, and mentor (Igbonigidi, 2010).
Entrepreneurs are frequently thought of as national assets to be cultivated, motivated and remunerated to the grated possible content. They also change the way we live and work. If successful their innovations may improve our standard of living. In short, in addition to creating wealth from their entrepreneurial ventures, they create jobs and better the conditions for a prosperous society. Furthermore, entrepreneurs create Social Changes through their unique offerings of new goods and services by break away from tradition, indirectly supporting freedom and reducing dependence on obsolete systems and technologies. They also help in Community Development by investing in community projects and provide financial support to local communities. They Add to National Income through their ventures which literally generate new wealth. The act of being an entrepreneur is known as entrepreneurship. No one can succeed in entrepreneurship through sheer luck except through creative ideas, extensive research work, plenty of trials doggedness, innovative ideas, precise decision making, accurate problem solving, good managerial ideas and consistent persistence and consistent persistence efforts. All these which can build entrepreneurship activities successful can be provided through the knowledge of Mathematics. (Odumosu &Olusesan, 2016)
Mathematics is a serving subject to all field of endeavor. The importance of this servicing subject to individuals, artisans, traders, school subjects, economic activities, political development, business advancement, technological knowhow and so on cannot be overemphasized.
Mathematics Application on Entrepreneurial Development skills
 HAIR DRESSING: It is a salon where you can make hair or cut hair to look more attractive. The area of Mathematics applied are: proportion, geometry, construction
 BEAD DRESSING: It is art of forming or attaching beads to one another by stringing them with a sewing needle or beading needle and thread or thin wire for cloths, jewelry, shoes, bags, etc
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Probability, Proportion, and Geometry.
 DECORATION: It sis the art of making something or place to look more attractive on special occasion like house, church, funeral seasonal decoration etc.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Statistics, Linear equation, Simple proportion.
 ARTS: It is a person engaged in one or more of any of as broad spectrum of activities related to creating art, practicing the arts and demonstrating on art.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Trigonometry.
 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: It is the management and care of farms animals by humans in which genetic qualities and behaviour considered to be advantageous to humans and further developed.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Statistic, Ratio, Percentage.
 VULCANIZE: Is a process of Harding rubber by treating it with sulphur at a high temperature.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Dynamics. Statistics.
 CARPENTERS: Is a person who makes wooden objects and structures.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Statistics.
 CATERING: Is the process of preparing, preserving, and providing of foods and drinks for meeting or ceremonies or social events.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Statistics, Measurement, and Proportion.
 HOUSEHOLD: Is anything being produce for the use or consumption of the family members.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Statistics, Geometry, Trigonometry.
 DRIVING: Is the process of operating and controlling the direction and speed of a motor vehicle.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Dynamics. Proportion; Rate.
 ICT/SYSTEM REPAIR: Is the process of restoring a good condition of a system, or ICT or GSM.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Integration, Calculus, and Dynamics.
 EVENT PLANNING: Is the process of managing a project such as meeting, convention, trade show, ceremony, team building activity, party. The area of Mathematics applied are:: Statistics, Simple Arithmetic, Probability.
 WEB DESIGNER: It is planning, creating, updating of websites.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Proportion, Ratio
 DIGITAL PRINTING:Is the process of transferring a document on a personal computer or other digital storage device to a printing substrate by means of a device that accepts text and graphic output.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Geometry, Algebra Formulas, Angles, Fractions, Circle Areas, Percentage.
 PHOTOGRAPH: It is the science of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of light sensitive materials such as photographic firm.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Fraction, Angles, and Percentage.
 INTERNET: Is an international information network that is linking computers.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Calculus, and Dynamics.
 Local area network (LAN): Is a computer network that links devices within building or group of adjacent buildings.
The areas of Mathematics applied are: Geometry, Probability, Proportion, Trigonometry, and Dynamics.
 SOAP MAKING: Is the process producing soap for personal and commercial use.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Statistics and Dynamics, Geometry.
 PERFUME: It is a sweet –smell liquid for applying in the today.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Statistics and Dynamics.
 Air FRESHER: is a product designed to mask or remove unpleasant odor in the rest rooms.
The area of Mathematics applied are:: Static, Dynamic, Geometry.
Source: Shelby L. Brumelle (1939 – 2001) and Sonoike (2006)
Statement of Problem Unemployment is an issue which is geometrically increasing globally. Entrepreneur skills development has recently become the solution to the agitation towards the reduction of unemployment in Nigeria. The Entrepreneur skills development requires the knowledge of mathematics. This study sought to investigate the impact of application of mathematics in entrepreneurial development skills.
Purpose of study
Specifically the study sought to find out:
 Whether the application of Mathematics contribute to the development of an entrepreneurial skill.
 The extent to which the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skills development.
 the extent to which the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skill
Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study
 To what extent does the application of mathematics contribute to the development of entrepreneurial skills?
 To what extent do the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skills development?.
 The level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male and female does not have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skills development?
Research Hypothesis
The following null hypothesis guided the study
H_{O}: There is no significant differences between the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male on their success in entrepreneurial skills development and the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female on their success in entrepreneurial skills development
Research method
Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprises of all entrepreneurs based in Idemmili North Local Government Area .A sample size of four hundred (400) entrepreneurs was selected using Taro Yamane formula for determining sample size from the major commercial towns in the Local Government Area. A Ten (10) item structured questionnaire was formulated to guide the study. The instrument was validated by two lecturers from mathematics department and measurement and evaluation unit of psychology department of Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe. The reliability was established using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient and a value of 0.85was obtained which was considered high enough. Three (3) research questions and one research hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The research questions were analyzed using mean and the research hypotheses was tested using Chi –square (X^{2}) at 0.05 level of significance.
Results
Research Question 1: To what extent does the application of mathematics contribute to the development of an entrepreneurial skill?
Table 1: Mean response on the application of mathematics contribution to the development of an entrepreneur skills
S/NO.  Items  Agreed  Disagree 
1.  Development of entrepreneurial skills need knowledge of Mathematics  250(62.5%)

150(37.5%)

2.  Good Mathematics students do well in entrepreneurial skills acquisition.  300(75%)

100(25%)

3.  Without the knowledge of MathematicsI cannot do well in entrepreneurial skills acquisition  280(70%)

120(30%)

4.  Entrepreneurial skills can be developed without the application of Mathematics.  100(25%)

300(75%)

5.  Mathematics knowledge when applied in my entrepreneur skills will not help to maximize profit 
100(25%) 
300(75%)

Table1 shows 62.5% of the respondents agreed that the development of entrepreneurial skills need knowledge of Mathematics. Interestingly 75% agreed that good Mathematics students do well in entrepreneurial skills acquisition,70% agreed that without the knowledge of Mathematics entrepreneurs cannot do well in entrepreneurial skills development,75% agreed that entrepreneurial skills cannot be developed without the application of Mathematics .Also 75% disagree that Mathematics knowledge when applied in entrepreneur skills will not help to maximize profit.
Research Question 2: To what extent does the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skills development?
Table 2: Male mean ratings on the level of acquisition of mathematics knowledge influence on their success in entrepreneurial skill development
S/N  Items  Agree  Disagree 
1  Mathematics can be applied at all level of any entrepreneurial skills development.  100(50%)

100(50%) 
2  the level of the application of mathematics knowledge influences entrepreneurial skill acquisition  150(75%)  50(25%)

3  Teaching of entrepreneurial skills need adequate basic knowledge of mathematics  130(65%)  70 (35%)

4  Knowledge of Mathematics helps entrepreneur ,towards increasing their daily income.  40(20%)

160(80%)

5  The knowledge of Mathematics iimproves the managerial skills of the entrepreneur in their everyday life.  75(37.5%)

125(62.5%)

Table 2 shows that 50%of male respondents agreed and disagreed that Mathematics can be applied at all level of any entrepreneurial skills development. 75% of male respondent agreed that the level of the application of mathematics knowledge influences entrepreneurial skill acquisition. 65% of the male entrepreneurial skill instructors agreed that teaching of entrepreneurial skills need adequate basic knowledge of mathematics. 80% of male respondent disagreed that the knowledge of Mathematics helps entrepreneur, towards increasing their daily income.62.5% of male respondent agreed that the knowledge of Mathematics improves the managerial skills of the entrepreneur in their everyday life.
Research Question 3: To what extent do the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female have influence on their success in entrepreneurial skill development ?.
Table 3: Female mean ratings on the level of acquisition of mathematics knowledge influence on their success in entrepreneurial skill development
S/N  Items  Agree  Disagree 
1  Mathematics can be applied at all level of any entrepreneurial skills development.  150(75%)

50(25%) 
2  the level of the application of mathematics knowledge influences entrepreneurial skill acquisition  150(75%)  50(25%)

3  Teaching of entrepreneurial skills need adequate basic knowledge of mathematics  150(75%)  50 (25%)

4  Knowledge of Mathematics helps entrepreneur, towards increasing their daily income.  60(30%)

140(70%)

5  The knowledge of Mathematics iimproves the managerial skills of the entrepreneur in their everyday life.  25(12.5%)

175(87.5%)

Table 3 shows that 75%of female respondents agreed that Mathematics can be applied at all level of any entrepreneurial skills development.75% of female respondent agreed that the level of the application of mathematics knowledge influences entrepreneurial skill acquisition. 75% of the female entrepreneurial skill instructors agreed that teaching of entrepreneurial skills need adequate basic knowledge of mathematics. 70% of female respondent disagreed that the Knowledge of Mathematics helps entrepreneur, towards increasing their daily income.87.5% of female respondent disagreed that the knowledge of Mathematics improves the managerial skills of the entrepreneur in their everyday life.
Research Hypotheses
Table 4
Ho: There is no significant difference between the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male on their success in entrepreneurial skills development and the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female on their success in entrepreneurial skills development
Ratings
Respondents 
Agree

Disagree  
O  E  O  E  Total  
Male  50  52  0.077  51  49.5  0.045  101 
Female  52  50.5  0.045  47  48.5  0.046  99 
Total  102  98  200 
Computation of X^{2}
X^{2} =
= =0.033
Degree of freedom = d.f = 1 at Significant level = 0.05
X^{2}table(1,0.05)=3.841X^{2} calculated = 0.213
Decision : Since the X^{2} calculated = 0.213 is less than X^{2}table(1,0.05)=3.841we accept H_{O}: There is no significant differences between the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male on their success in entrepreneurial skills development and the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female on their success in entrepreneurial skills development
Discussions:
The result as shown in table 1 indicates that the application of mathematics contributes to the development of an entrepreneurial skill. This implies that basic knowledge of mathematics is a pre=requisite for entrepreneurial skill development.
The result as shown in table 2 and 3indicates that there is gender effect on the level of acquisition of mathematics knowledge influence on success in entrepreneurial skill development.
The result as shown in table 4 reveals that the X^{2} calculated = 0.213 is less than X^{2}table (1, 0.05)=3.841,hence H_{O} is accepted that there is no significant differences between the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by male on their success in entrepreneurial skills development and the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired by female on their success in entrepreneurial skills development. This implies that gender do not have effect on the influence of the level of mathematics knowledge acquired and the success achieved in entrepreneurial skills .The contingency coefficient C computed to text the extent of the relationship give 0.033 which indicates low relationship between male and female respondent.
Conclusion
In the views of Odumosu &Olusesan,2016, “All these which can build an entrepreneurship activities successful can be provided through the knowledge of Mathematics”, the study revealed that application of mathematics in entrepreneurial skill development is essential for rapid and sustainable economic growth and development; reduction in unemployment and poverty. It also reveals the concepts of Mathematics that is applied during the development of entrepreneurial skills .The level of basic mathematics knowledge acquired by an entrepreneur determines his /her incomes and earnings or the profit maximization function
Recommendations
 Government should make sure that every citizen attains basic education which will give them access to basic Mathematics knowledge.
 Government agencies at the state and local government levels should locate special basic schools at strategic places in the communities for those adults who are disadvantaged from attending the formal school in time and space.
 Government should make available standard curriculum for entrepreneurial skill development. This should have basic Mathematics as a major course.
References
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Igbongidi (2010): Meaning of Entrepreneur, Enjoy Business Challenges and sees these Challenges as Stepping Stories Towards Success.
Igbongidi, B.P (2010). Entrepreneurship: A Strategic Tool for Sustainable Development. A Paper Presented at the 22^{nd} ABEN National Conference at Federal College of Education, Abeokuta.
Nworgu, B,G (2006): Educational Research Issue and Methodology Ibadan Oluseji Press.
Odumosu M.O and Olusesan E.G(2016) Relevance Of Mathematics Education To Entrepreneurship Skills Acquisition Towards The Realization of Vision 20:2020.International Journal For Disciplinary Subjects In Education .7(2).27682773
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