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Ntụcha Asụsụ Ndịnọrụ nke Mkparịta Ụka Dị N’etiti Onye Isi Ala Muhammadu Buhari Na Praịm Mịnịsta David Cameron Gbasara Mpụ

1*Ahamefula, N.O., Udechukwu, C.N, Aboh, S.C., Ezekiel, J.C. Ngalaba Lingwistiiks, Igbo na Asụsụ Naịjirịa Ndị Ọzọ, Mahadum Naịjirịa, Nsụka                                                                                   

2Okoye, C.L.,                                                                                                                                                                                 Ngalaba Lingwistiiks, Mahadum Nnamdi Azikiwe, Ọka

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³Onyegiri, Chikaodi Dypna                                                                                                                                                    Senta maka Amụmamụ Igbo, Mahadum Naịjirịa, Nsụka

corressponding email: ndubuisi.ahamefula@unn.edu.ng

 

Ụmịedemede

Ndị ọrụ gọmenti na-enwe mkparịta ụka n’otu oge ma ọ bụ oge ọzọ. Ya bụ mkparịta ụka nwere ike ịbụ nke ihu na ihu ma ọ bụ nke e mere site n’ọwa nzimozi. Ụfọdụ mgbe, ndị mmadụ na-ekwu ihe ha achọghị ikwu ma ọ bụkwanụ kwuo ihe ga-emetụta onye ọzọ. Ọ bụ n’ihi nke a mere e ji chọrọ ilebanye anya na mkparịta ụka dị n’etiti onye isi ala Muhammadu Buhari na Praịm Mịnịsta David Cameron gbasara mpụ. N’iwetulata oke nchọcha a, data e ji mee ntụcha bụ okwu Cameron kwuru na Naịjirịa na Afghanistan riri amoosu na mpụ (fantastically corrupt) na nzaghachị Buhari na ọ gaghị ayọ maka mgbaghara kama mweghachi ihe niile e zuru. Nchọcha ji usoro nchọcha nkọwa sọvei nakwa atụmatụ iwu mkparịta ụka Grice were rụọ ọrụ. Nchọcha chọpụtara na okwu Cameron pụtara na mba na-echekwa ego e zuru ezu na-etinyekwa aka na mpụ. Ọzọkwa, nzaghachị Buhari gosiri na o kwetere na Naịjirịa bụ obodo mpụ. A chọpụtakwara na okwu Cameron na nzaghachị Buhari mezuru iwu okwukwu ezi okwu mana ọ dara iwu ndomanya.

Ọkpụrụkpụ okwu: iwu mkparịta ụka, mpụ, Buhari, David Cameron

Government officials engage in dialogues at a given time or the other. This dialogue can be physical i.e. face to face or non-physical which may be through the media. In most of these dialogues, interlocutors, most often, say what they do not mean or end up saying what they never intended to say. It is on this premise that this paper studies the dialogic engagement between President Muhammadu Buhari and Prime Minister David Cameron on issues of corruption. To reduce the scope of the study, the data used for analysis, which were elicited from the media, are based on Cameron’s statement that Nigeria and Afghanistan are fantastically corrupt and Buhari’s response that he will not ask for apology but will only ask for the refund of the assets. The paper adopts the descriptive survey research design as well as adopting Grice’s conversational maxims as the theoretical framework.  The research finds out that the statement of Cameron implies that a country that harbours stolen funds is also corrupt. Also, Buhari’s response denotes that he accepts that Nigeria is corrupt.  The paper also finds out that the statement of Cameron and response of Buhari gain quality and relevance but lacks manner.

Keywords: Conversational maxims, corruption, Buhari, David Cameron

Ndubanye

                Asụsụ so n’otu akọrọngwa mmadụ na ibe ya ji akpakọrịta. Ọ na-echekwa ma na-emebi mmekọrịta dị n’etiti mmadụ, obodo, otu ma ọ bụ mba. Ọ bụ asụsụ ka a na-eji akparịta ụka ma werekwa ya na-agwa ọha mmadụ okwu. Asụsụ bụ ụzọ ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ndị isi ala si ewube mmekọrịta n’etiti mba na mba ma jirikwa ya na-ewete akpamoke na iro. Ọ bụ ya kpatara ndị ndu ma ọ bụ ndị nnọchite anya ha na-ehi aka n’anya mgbe ọ bụla ha na-ekwu okwu, mgbe ha na-aza ajụjụ, mgbe ha nọ n’ọgbakọ, mgbe ha na-ekwu okwu n’ọwa nzimozi ma ọ bụ mgbe ha na-akparịta ụka nke nwere ike ịbụ ihu na ihu ma ọ bụ nke e zisara site n’owa ịntanet. Ọ bụ a nke mere anyị ji na-eme ntụcha asụsụ ndịnọrụ nke mkparịta ụka dị n’etiti onye isi ala Muhammadu Buhari na Praịm Mịnịsta David Cameron.

Ime nchọcha dị etu a dabara adaba n’ihi na n’oge ụfọdụ, ndị mmadụ na-ekwu ihe na-esighị ha n’obi. Mgbe ụfọdụ kwa, ndị mmadụ na-ekwu ihe na-ewe onye/ndị ọzọ iwe. Ọzọ kwa, nghọta ha nyere ihe ha kwuru nwere ike ọ gaghị abụ otu ụdị nghọta ndị nụrụ ya ga-enye ya. Nghọtahie nwere ike ibute esemokwu n’etiti mmadụ na ibe ya.

                Dịka e kwuburu na mbụ, ndị ọrụ gọmenti na ibe ha na-akparịta nkata nke nwere ike ịbụ nke e mere n’ihu n’ihu ma ọ bụ nke e mere site n’ọwa nzimozi ịntanet ma ọ bụ site n’aka ndị ọrụ mgbasa ozi. Mkparịta ụka a na-enwe n’ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-esitekarị n’ebumnuche ikwu etu obi dị mmadụ gbasara ihe na-emenu. Dị ka ọgbakọ megide mpụ nke mba ụwa na-abịa nso nke a ga-eme mgbe ọnwa Mee gbara mkpụrụ ụbọchị iri na abụọ n’afọ 2016, oge David Cameron na eze nwaanyị mba Britain na-akparịta nkata, Cameron kwuru na Naịjirịa na Afghanistan riri amoosu na mpụ tinyekwara na ndị ndu ha na-abịa London. Mgbe a jụrụ ya ma ọ ma na e ji onyoonyo ele ya, ọ zaghachịrị na e nwere ọtụtụ onyoonyo n’ụlọ ahụ.

                Okwu a Cameron kwuru kpaliri mkparịta ụka nke chọrọ nzaghachi. Ka o sila dị, Buhari kwesiri ịzaghachi. Site n’ọsịsa o nyere ndị ọrụ mgbasa ozi, Buhari zaghachịrị mgbe a jụrụ ya ma ọ ga-achọ ka Cameron yọọ ya mgbaghara; o kwuru na ọ chọghị onye na-arịọ ya mgbaghara kama mweghachi ihe niile e zuru. Site na nke a, mkparịta ụka gara n’etiti Cameron na Buhari abụghị nke ihu na ihu; kama ọ bụ ọmụma atụ mkparịta ụka ndị orụ mgbasa ozi mere ka ọ dị ire.

Ọnọdụ Mpụ na Naịjirịa

                Mpụ bụ ihe na-adọghachi otuto Naịjirịa. Buhari chọpụtara nke a wee na-alụ agha megide mpụ. Mpụ eribaala n’ime obi mmebe iwu Naịjirịa na ntinye iwu ndị a n’ọrụ. Bello-Iman (2015) kọwara mpụ dị ka iji ụlọ ọrụ ọha wee mere ihe e ji enwete akụ nke onwe nakwazi akparamagwa ọ bụla nke obodo anabataghị. Dịka Khan (1996:12) siri kọwaa, mpụ bụ ihe ọ bụla mmadụ mere nke dachara n’etu e si eme ihe, tinyere ụkpụrụ na-achịkwa akparamagwa mmadụ n’ọnọdụ ọchịchị ma ọ bụ ntụkwasị obi ma n’ebe ọha ma n’ebe onwe, n’ihi ọchịchọ nke onwe (na-abụghị nke ọha) dị ka akụnụba, ikike, ogo dgz.

                Otu ihe dị mkpa ịrụtụ aka bụ na nkọwa nke mbụ hụtara mpụ dị ka ihe metụtara ndị ụlọ ọrụ ọha ebe nke ọzọ hụtara ya dị ka ihe na-ewere ọnodụ ma n’ụlọ ọrụ ọha ma n’ụlọ ọrụ mmadụ nwe. Ka o sila dị, mpụ bụ ihe mmadụ kpachara anya mee nke na-erubeghị isi n’ihe iwu kwuru gbasara akụnụba, akụ onwunwe, na ikike. N’ịgbakwunye ihe ndị mejuputara mpụ, Ekundayo, Obasaju, Lawal & Iseolurunkami (2013:4) kwuru na mpụ gunyere iri aka azụ, ibubata ngwa n’ụzọ na-ezighị ezi, aghụghọ, izu ego, ibu ọgwụ ike, iji akwụkwọ adịgboroja, ịtụ asị, akwụzughị ụgwọ, na inye aka iwetu ugwu mmadụ, obodo ma ọ bụ mba.

                Dị ka o siri metụta Naịjirịa, mpụ so n’otu nsogbu na-eche nchekwa ndụ aka mgba n’ihi na ọ na-akwalite ụbịam, arụ, na emereme ndị isi na-adịghị mma. N’uche nke ya, Dike (2005) chopụtara na ọbịbịa ndị militant, ndị ntọ, na obi erughị ala na Naịjirịa sitere na mpụ. Ọ gara n’ihu ikwu na n’ogbe Naịja Delta ebe e bu ụzọ nwee militant, ọ bụ ndị agboro ndị na-arụrụ ndị ajọ ọchịchị ọrụ malitere ya. Obijiofor (2016:34) kwuru na ndị ndu chiburu n’oge gboo na ndị na-achị ugbu a echekwaghị ego ọha nke ọma. Ha kwalitere omenala mpụ. Ha enweghị ike imenwu ezigbo ihe na ndụ ndị mmadụ. Ọ tụnyere alo ka Naịjirịa kwụsị mbubata ahịa maka na ọ na-etinye akụnụba anyị n’ọnọdụ ọdị-ndụ-ọnwụ-ka-mma bịazie na-akwalite akụnụba mba ndị anyi si n’aka ha ebubata ngwa ahịa ndị a. Dịka o si kwuo, Naịjirịa na-emefu ijeri dọla anọ na mbubata ifurifu ọka, ijeri dọla abụọ na nde abụọ na mbubata kọtịn, ijeri dọla abụọ na mbubata osikapa nke e si na nzuzo bubata n’obodo, nde dọla narị isii na iri abụọ na atọ na mbubata mmiri ara ehi, na nde dola narị ise na mbubata shuga. Nke a bụ mmefu akụnụba na igbu mmụọ na akụmakụ ihe ubi na Naịjirịa.

                Achebe (1983) kọwara ọnodụ mpụ na Naịjirịa dị ka ihe sitere na-enweghị ndị ezigbo ndu. Ọ gara n’ihu ikwu na mpụ na Naịjirịa esila n’ogo mmekwata banye n’ọnọdụ nwere ike igbu Naịjirịa. Nke a pụtara na e kwesiri ịgba ezigbo mbọ ịhụ na a kwọrọ nwaanyị ukwu wara. Ka o sila dị, Mohammed (2013:123) kwuru na enweghị agburu dị na Naịjirịa ga-ekwu na aka ya dị ọcha n’ihe gbasatara mpụ. Ọ gara n’ihu ikwu na mpụ na Naịjirịa abụrụla omenala. Mpụ arịbala n’ụmụ obodo nke na onye ọ bụla a họrọ n’oche ọchịchị, ndị obodo ya ga na-eche uru oche ahụ ga-abara ha. Ya bụ ndị ọ na-anọchite anya ha dị njikere ikuziri ya etu e si ezu ohi. Ya mere, e jirila mpụ mara obodo na omenala ọ bụla na Naịjirịa.

                Ebe ọ bụ na ihe ntụ mpụ nke ndị Transparency International mere na 2015 gosiri na Afghanistan bụ obodo otu narị iri isii na asaa na mpụ ebe Naịjirịa bụ ndị otu narị na iri atọ na isii. Ọgụ Buhari na-alụ megide mpụ ga-abụ ihe kpatara Cameron jiri were ohere ọgbakmba ụwa megide mpụ jiri kwuo na Naịjirịa na Afghanistan riri amoosu na mpụ.

Iwu Mkparịta Ụka

                Echemeche iwu mkparịta ụka gbadoro ụkwụ n’ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta Grice (1975). Grice (1975:45) na-ekwu na isi sekpụ ntị na mkparịta ụka ọ bụla bụ ihe ọ kpọrọ ụkpurụ mmekọrịta: mee ka ntụnye gi na mkparịta ụka dị etu a chọrọ ya, n’ogo nke ọ pụtara ihe, ma dabakwa adaba n’okwu a kpụ n’ọnụ. N’ime ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta Grice, o depụtara iwu anọ a ga-edowe iji hụ na e nwere mmekọrịta mgbe a na-akparịta ụka. Iwu anọ ndị a dịka Grice (1975:47-48) siri kwuo bụ:

Iwu okwukwu ezi okwu nke na-arụtụ aka na mmadụ ekwesighị ikwu ihe ọ ma bụ asị na nke na-edochaghị ya anya.

Iwu nhanole nke na-ekwu na mmadụ ga-eme ntụnye ya etu a chọrọ ya; ọ gaghị agafe agafe.

Iwu ndabara: ihe onye na-ekwu ga-adaba adaba

Iwu ndomanya: Iwu a na-ekwu na mmadụ ga-ekwu ihe doro anya ma dịkwa nkenke nke a ga-ahazi nke ọma

                Grice (1975) gara n’ihu ikwu na iwu mkparịta ụka abụghị naanị na mkparịta ụka ka ọ bara uru kama n’ihe ndị ọzọ metụtara mmadụ. Ọzọkwa, ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ anaghị edowe iwu a nke na-eme ka ha kwuo ihe ha na-achọghị ikwu. Ha nwere ike ịda iwu ndị a ma ọ bụ tikọọ iwu abụọ isi ọnụ. Ọdịda iwu ndị a na-ebute mmafe mkparịta ụka (conversational implicature). Wardhaugh (2006:292) kọwara mmafe mkparịta ụka dị ka mgbe A gwara B okwu, B ga-aghọta okwu A n’otu ụzọ maka na B ga-achọpụta na A kwukarịrị ihe a tụrụ anya n’aka ya, ma ọ bụ nye nzaghachi na-adabaghị adaba ma ọ bụ ikpuchi okwu a kpụ n’ọnụ. B ga-atapịa ihe A kwuru dị ka agwa mmekọrịta na mkparịta ụka di n’etiti A na B, maka na e nwere ike isi ụzọ ọzọ gosi mmekọrịta. Ha ga-achọpụta ụzọ okwu A siri daba adaba n’okwu a kpụ n’ọnụ, ebumnobi B ga-abụ na okwu ahụ kwere nghọta ma ọ bụrụ na ụkpụrụ a ga-eji chọpụta nghọta ya nọ nso.

                N’agbanyeghị uru ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta Grice bara n’amụmamụ asụsụ ndịnọrụ na amụmamụ asụsụ na obodo, akatọọla atụmatụ Grice site n’ikwu na ọ bụ ihe omenala na-ekpebite; ọ bụghị omenala ka e nwere ike ịhụta ọnọdụ a. Ọ bụrụ na a tụlee uru ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta, a ga-achopụta na o nyerela ndị mmadụ aka ịkwanyere onwe ha ugwu na mkparịta ụka. Ọ bụ atụmatụ a ka anyị ga-agbado ụkwụ na ya were tụlee mkparịta ụka dị n’etiti Cameron na Buhari iji mara ma ha ruwere isi n’iwu Grice ka ha a dara ya.

Ngosipụta Data na Ntụcha Mkparịta Ụka Cameron na Buhari

Okwu Cameron: Naịjirịa na Afghanistan riri amoosu na mpụ; ndị ndu ha na-abịa London.

Nzaghachị Muhammadu Buhari: Agaghị m achọ ka onye ọ bụla rịọ mgbaghara. Ihe m chorọ bụ mweghachi akụ ndị ahụ.

                Iwu okwukwu ezi okwu na-ekwu na okwuu ga-ekwuriri ezi okwu. Ọ gaghị ekwu ihe ọ ma bụ asị ma ọ bụ ihe na-edoghị ya anya. Mgbe Cameron kwuru na Naịjirịa riri amoosu na mpụ, ezi okwu dị n’okwu ya. Ọgụ Buhari megide mpụ gosiri na ọ bụ ezi okwu. N’ajụjụ ọnụ odezi ndị SkyNews, Dominic Waghorn gbara Buhari ka o kwuchara okwu n’ọgbakọ ndị Commonwealth, Adetayo na Ogundele (2016) kọwara na Buhari kwuru n’ezie na Naịjirịa riri amoosu na mpụ. Ọ gara n’ihu ịkọwa etu Alamieyeseigha na Nọvemba 22, 2005 siri jie ejiji ka nwaanyị ma were akwụkwọ njem adigboroja gbanarịa ụlọ nga na Britain mgbe a na-enyocha ya maka izu nde £1.8. N’igosi na ihe Cameron kwuru bụ ezi okwu, nnukwu ụkọchukwu (aachịbishọp) Canterbury Justin Welby, kwuru na onye isi ala nke a [Buhari] anaghị eme mpụ, ọ na-agbasi mbọ ike. Okwu a Welby kwuru gosiri na Naịjirịa bụ obodo mpụ.

                N’aka nke ọzọ, nzaghachị Buhari bụ na ọ gaghị achọ onye ọ bụla ịrịọ ya mgbaghara kama ihe ọ chọrọ bụ ka e weghachị ego e zuru. Ọ gara n’ihu ikwu na ọ ma ụdịrị mmechu ihu otu onye ọrụ gọmenti Naịjirịa buteere Naịjirịa site n’iji ejiji ka nwaanyị were gbafuo na Britain ma hapụ ego ya nke Britain dị njikere inyeghachị anyị. Nzaghachị a bụ ezi okwu n’ihi na n’afọ 2015, Alamieyeseigha bụ onye e kwuru na o zuru ego n’ihi na ndị uwe ojii hụrụ otu nde yuro (£1m) n’ebe obibi ya na akụ karịrị £10m.

                Mpụtara okwu Cameron na nzaghachị Buhari bụ na Britain n’onwe ya rikwara amoosu na mpụ n’ihi na obodo na-ezo ego e zuru ezu tinyekwara aka na mpụ. Ọ bụrụ na Britain abụghị obodo mpụ, ha kaara inyeghachị Naịjirịa ego ahụ ozugbo ozugbo. Mana ebe ọ bụ na ha emeghị otu a mgbe ha chọpụtara na ọ bụ Naịjirịa nwe ego ahụ, ọ pụtara na ha rikwara amoosu na mpụ.

                N’ịkwado nke a, Obi (2016) kwuru na ndị Naịjirịa bụ ndị mpụ; aka onye ọbụla niile dị na ya. Ọ gara n’ihu ịkọwa na nsogbu Naịjirịa bụ ndị ajọ ọchịchị na mpụ kpatara ya; o nweghị onye ga-asị na aka ya dị ocha. N’ịga n’ihu, o kwuru na ndị malitere nsogbu nke mpụ ekwesighị ịkpọ onwe ha ndị nsọ. N’aka nke ya, Ụtazi (2016) kwuru na ọ bụ naanị n’afọ iri gara aga ka e wepụtara iwu megide iri aka azụ na Britain. O kwukwara na enweghị ezigbo iwu metụtara ego na Britain nke na-eme ka iziga ego niile e zuru ezu na Britain dị mfe. Okwu ndị a mere ka Britain an Naịjirịa rie amoosu na mpụ.

                Iwu nhanole na-ekwu na okwuu ga-eme ntụnye ya ka ọ dị n’ụdị a chorọ ya. Ma o kwu Cameron ma nzaghachị Buhari dara iwu a. Okwu ha enyeghị ihe a chọrọ. Cameron ekwughị ihe kpatara o jiri kwuo ihe o kwuru. Ọ gwaghị anyị ihe kpatara o jiri sị na Naịjirịa riri amoosu na mpụ. Nzaghachị Buhari n’aka nke ọzọ dara iwu a maka na ọnụ ọgụgụ ma ọ bụ ụdịrị ihe e zuru bụ nke mmadụ na-amachaghị. Ọ gaara ikwu kpọmkwem ihe ọ tụrụ anya ka e weghachi. Ya mere, mkparịta ụka ha dara iwu nhanole.

                Ka o sila dị, mkparịta ụka ha mezuru iwu ndabara. Okwu Cameron dabara adaba n’okwu a kpụ n’ọnụ n’ihi na o kwuru ya bụ okwu ụbọchị na-esote ụbọchị e nwere ọgbakọ mba ụwa megide mpụ. Iwu ndabara na-ekwu na okwuu ga-ekwu ihe nwere nghọta ma dabakwa adaba n’okwu a kpụ n’ọnụ. Nzaghachị Buhari mezuru iwu ndabara maka na ọ na-enye okwu Cameron ọsịsa. Ọzọ kwa, o nyere ọsịsa a mgbe ọ gwachara ndị mmadụ okwu n’ọgbakọ ha mere.

                Iwu ndomanya na-akọwa na okwuu ga-eme ka okwu ya doo anya, ghara ịkpọ ogwu na ntị ma dịkwa mfe ịghọta. Itikọta okwu abụọ nwere nghọta dị iche iche ga-eme ka mmadụ chemie echiche ime tupu ọ ghọta ihe a na-akọ. Iri amoosu n’ihe, nwere nghọta dị mma ebe mpụ nwere nghọta dị njọ. Ya bụ, itikọta echiche abụọ a ọnụ mere ka okwu ahụ gbaa mmadụ gharịị.

                Etu ọ dị, ebe okwu Cameron dara iwu ndomanya, akụkụ mkparịta ụka Buhari mezuru iwu nke ndomanya n’ihi na ọ gbọrọ ihe ewu riri site n’ikwu na ọ choghị mgbaghara kama mweghachi ego e zuru. Iji gosi nhazi dị n’okwu ya, o kwuru etu Naịjirịa si tinye atụmatụ inwe otu ọba ego (Treasury Single Account) ebe uru niile gọmenti nwetere ga na-abanye. Nke a ga-eme ka ọ hia ndị ọrụ gọmenti ahụ izu ego Naịjirịa. Ọ gara n’ihu ikwu na site n’itinye inwe otu ọba ego n’ọrụ na nnyocha akara ọba ego (Bank Verification Number), Naịjirịa ewepụla ndị ọrụ asị dị puku iri abụọ na atọ na ndị a na-akwụ ụgwọ, nke mere ka e chekwaa ọtụtụ nde naịra a kaara izu.

Mmechi

                Ọgụ megide mpụ na Naịjirịa bụ n’otu n’ime ebumnuche ọchịchị Buhari. Ogo mpụ dị na Naịjirịa abụrụla ihe na-akpata etoghị eto na nghasa obodo. Tupu e mee ọgbakọ mba ụwa megide mpụ na London nke ga-ewere ọnọdụ na Mee 12, 2016 na mgbe e mechara ya, Buhari na Cameron nwere mkparịta ụka ebe Cameron nọrọ kwuo na Naịjirịa bụ obodo riri amoosu na mpụ. Na nzaghachị ya, Buhari kwuru na ọ chọghị onye na-arịọ ya mgbaghara kama ka e weghachị ego niile e zuru. Site na ntucha e merela, a chọpụtara na mkparịta ụka a mezuru iwu okwukwu ezi okwu na ndabara ebe ọ dara iwu nhabole n’ihi na o nyeghị ihe a chọrọ. Nchọcha chọpụtara na ọ bụghị naanị Naịjirịa bụ obodo mpụ kama Britain sokwa bụrụ obodo mpụ n’ihi na obodo ọbụla nyere aka chekwaa ego e nwetere n’ụzọ na-adịghị mma sokwa bụrụ ndị mpụ. N’aka nke ọzọ, okwu Cameron dara iwu ndomanya maka na itinye okwu abụọ na-anaghị agakọta butere mgbagharịị. N’aka nke ọzọ, nzaghachi Buhari mezuru iwu ndomanya maka na a haziri ya nke ọma ma kwekwa nghọta.

                Ọgụ megide mpụ abụghị naanị ọrụ dịịrị ndị gọmenti na ndị orụ ya, o bụ ọrụ dịịrị mmadụ niile. Ndị mmadụ n’ọkwa ha dị iche iche kwesiri ime ihe dị mma maka na mgbanwe dị mma nke a na-atụ anya ya ga-ebido na ntọala.

 

Edensibịa

Achebe, C. (1983). The trouble with Nigeria. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Adetayo, O. & Ogundele, K. (2016). Buhari agrees with Cameron that Nigeria is ‘fantastically corrupt. Retrieved from http://www.punch.ng.com/buhari-agrees-cameron-nigeria-fantasticaly-corrupt-2/

Bello-Imam, I. B. (2014). Corruption and development. In I. B. Bello-Iman & M. I. Obadan (eds.). Democratic governance and development of Nigeria’s fourth republic. Ibadan: GLGRDS.

Dike, V. E. (2005). Corruption in Nigeria: A new paradigm for effective control. Retrieved from http://www.jsdafrica.com/jsda/summer/1999/articlepdf/

Ekundayo, R. M., Obasaju, B., Lawal, A. & IseOlurunkami, J. (2013). Analysis of corruption and economic growth in Nigeria. Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences 4(4.2), 1-19.

Grice, P. (1975). Logic in conversation.  In P. Cole and J. Morgan (Eds.) Syntax and semantics: Speech acts 3 (pp. 41–59). New York: Academic Press.

Khan, M. H. (1996). A typology of corrupt transactions in developing countries. IDS Bulletin.

Mohammed, U. (2013). Corruption in Nigeria: A challenge to sustainable development in the fourth republic.  European Scientific Journals, 9, 118-137.

Obi, P. (2016). In the service of the arts: In the service of culture and nation. A lecture presented at Chinua Achebe Memorial Lecture, at University of Nigeria, Nsukka, on May 24, 2016.

Obijiofor, L. (2016). Tracking the source of our grandiose lifestyle. Dailysun, p. 34.

Transparency International (2015). Transparency International Statement.

Utazi, C. (2016). A comment during Chinua Achebe Memorial Lecture, at University of Nigeria, Nsukka, on May 24.

Wardhaugh, R. (2006). An Introduction to sociolinguistics (5th Ed.). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

 

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