EKWE JONAL. ISSN: 2476 – 8421. Agba nke abuo, Otu nime Onwa. Jun, 2015. Nke si n’aka. Igbo Scholars Forum, Nigeria. Ndi n’hazi: Onukwube. A. Alex na Anedo & Ngozi Thecla Udemmadu. Ndi nke bu ndi nnukwu nkuzi na Mahadum Nnamdi Azikiwe di n’Oka, Steeti Anambra n’ime Naijiria.

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ÉKWÉ JQNAL
NKE NDI IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA
Volume 2 No 1, October, 2016
Ndi nhazi:
Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo na Ngozi Thecla Udemmadu
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ÉKWÉ JQNAL
Qkwa ideta akwukwo
Ékwe Jqnal nke ndi IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, Nigeria na-akpqku ndi odee nwere ederede e
nyochere ma dezie nke qma n’ihe gbasara Igbo na ndi ya, ka ha wete ha ka e bipxtara ha n’Ekwe
Jonal.. Anyi na-anabata ederede na atxmaatx qbxla metutere qd[mma nd[ mmadx, asxsx,
ekpemekpe, agxmakwxkwq, mgbaragwx na mkpakwxkwq, Akxkqntqala, Akxnaxba, Mmekqr[ta
mmadx na ibe ya, Omenala, Nkanaxzx, Mmekqr[ta azxmah[a, Qch[ch[, Gburugburu, dgz. Zite
akwxkwq g[ d[ka akpaozi ntado nke ikuku site n’akara ozi ikuku a: igboscholars@yahoo.com
maqbx i bipxta ya n’akwxkwq xzq abxq ma zigara ya otu onye n’ime nd[ nhazi Jonal a.Xd[
nrxakaebe ihe nd[ e legere anya n’ide ederede any[ ga-anabata bx MLA agba nke asaa. Jqnal a bu
n’obi [d[ na-ewepxta akaqrx ya kwa.
Onukwube Alex . A. Anedo & Ngozi Thecla Udemmadu
Nd[ nhazi
IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA
Department of African & Asian Studies,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,
Anambra State – Nigeria
Phone: +2348037859249, +2347038296805
e-mail:igboscholars@yahoo.com;
web: http://wwwigboscholarsforum.com.ng
Vol.2 No.1 June, 2015 ISSN: 2476-8448
Printed by
Besing Books Multipurpose Publications
No. 1 Dike Street
Awka
Anambra State, Nigeria
08060850177
ISSN: 2476-8448
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FROM EDITORIAL DESK
Ekwe Jonal bu otu n’akaqrx nd[ Igbo Scholars Forum nke malitere site n’obi [nx qkx iji
ch[kqlata xmxaka Igbo gxrx akwxkwq ka ha wee nwee ike [malite chewe echichi d[ka nd[ Igbo
site n’idepxta akwxkwq, na-ezukq ma na-enwe qgbakq. N’eziokwu, q bx Dr. Onukwube
Alexander Alfred Anedo and Dr. Mrs. Ngozi Thecla Udemmadu (Nee Obiora) malitere Igbo
Scholars Forum was founded nke bidoro mgbe ha wepxtere akwxkwq ha dere maka nna
qkpxtqrq qkpx nke otu a bx Prof. Obed Muojekwu Anizoba (Ozonwa),ka qnwa Disemba nke afq
2013 d[ mkpxrx xbqch[ iri na ise iji kwanyere ya ugwu. N’afq qma ya, Prof O. M. Anizoba
kwere ha qnya ikuku, http://www.igboscholars.com ebe ha ga-esi na-agwa xwa nd[ nd[ Igbo bx,
ihe gbasara ndx ha na ihe ha kwenyere na ya.. Jqnal nd[ qzq nke nd[ otu a chqrq isi na ha na-eche
Igbo n’ihu nd[ xwa bx Ideal Journal na Igbscholars Journal.
Onukwube A. A. Anedo, Ph.D. na Ngozi T. O. Udemmadu, Ph.D.
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Nd[ ndxmqdx:
Prof. Obed Muojekwu Anizoba
Department of African & Asian Studies, Faculty of Arts, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,
Awka – Nigeria
Prof. Samuel Uzochukwu
Department of Igbo & Linguistics, Faculty of Arts, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu
University, Igbariam, Nigeria
Prof Betrand Okolo
Department of Languages & linguistics, University of Benin, Edo State.
(c) Igboscholarsforum 2016
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ND{NAYA
1. EJIJI D{KA NJIRIMARA AGBXRX
Oparah C.E. Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, Alvan Ikoku Federal College
of Education, Owerri. Phone: 08033878731 e-mail: chinwendueverista@yahoo.com
2. ECHEKWAGH{ ASXSX IGBO N’EZINAXLQ: NSOGBU NA QGHQM D{ NA YA
Anxmxdx Maria, Ngalaba na-ahx maka Qmxmx Asxsx Ala Na[jir[a, Alvan Ikoku Federal
College of Education, Owerri. phone: 08034509775 e-mail: constancecebayo@yahoo.com
3. QCHX D{KA ARX N’ALA AKQKWA
Opara, C.D. Directorate of General Studies Federal University of Technology, Owerri. phone n:
08037975253 Email: ayoziechiomaa@gmail.com na
Onwubie, B.C. Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages Alvan Ikoku Federal College
of Education, Owerri. phone: 08032676115; e-mail: bibymygirl@gmail.com
4. NTUTEGHAR{ OMENAALA IGBO ND{ NA-ANWX ANWX SITE N’AGXMAGX
QDINAALA NDI IGBO
Benedict Nkemdirim Igbokwe (Ph.D) Directorate of General Studies, Federal University of
Technology, Owerri uwa9@yahoo.com na
Ezeji Judith Chinuruekperem (DCPB) Daughters Of Charity Of The Most Precious Blood,
Owerri ezejichinuruekperem@gmail.com
5. Ntụle Njụ Ajụjụ N’olu Uburu Na N’olu Izii
Eze Maudlyn Adaora, Igbo Department, Command Secondary School, Abakiliki, Ebonyi State
meezeadaora@gmail.com , 07069585555 na
Ezemoka, Augustina, Igbo Department, FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja,
tinasommy04@yahoo.com 08033553006
6. Nzipxta Omenala n’Iduuaz[ Igbo
N. M. OBI Department of Igbo, African & Asian Studies Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
+2348064444837 nonyemobi06@yahoo.com
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EJIJI D{KA NJIRIMARA AGBXRX
Oparah C.E.
Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages
Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education, Owerri.
Phone: 08033878731
e-mail: chinwendueverista@yahoo.com
Xm[edemede
Obodo qbxla nwere omenaala e ji mara ha, Ka omenaala nd[ a siri d[ iche ka omume maqbx
akparamagwa ha siri d[ iche. Nd[ Igbo bx nd[ ji ejiji d[ka otu n’ime omenaala e jiri mara ha. E
nwere ejiji di iche iche, xd[ ejiji nd[ a na-egosipxta ogo mmadx n’obodo. Q na-egosi onye bx
nna, nne, nwaokorob[a na nwaagbqghqb[a. A gakwara n’ihu nwee ejiji nd[ e chiri echichi d[ka
echichi chiifu, Nze na qzq ebe nd[ lqqlq nwere ejiji nke e ji mara ha. Q na-abx ihe [gba anya
mmiri na nd[ Igbo hapxrx ejiji ha lekwasa anya na-ejiji nwa bekee na-abxgh[ njiri mara nd[ Igbo.
Ebumnuuche edemede a bx ileba anya n’ejiji nd[ Igbo mgbe ochie, xd[ ejiji d[ iche iche n’oge
ugbu a na qghqm d[ n’ejiji nwa bekee. N’ikpeazx, a ch[kqtara ma nyekwa ntxziaka xzq a ga-esi
chxq omeneelu nd[ a xkwx eru ala.
Ndubata
Ndi Igbo bu nd[ ji omenaala ha kpqrq ihe nke ukwuu, nke na, e nweghi ihe ha mewere hapu
omenaala maka site n’omenaala ka nd[ Igbo ji ezipxta ndx ha d[ka q d[. Ya mere Ekwealor
(2010:29) jiri kqwaa omenaala d[ka otu nd[ si ebi ndx ha. Qgbalx (1981) kqwakwara omenaala
d[ka:
Ihe any[ na-eme otu any[ si ad[ ndx, ihe any[ na-eri na ihe any[ na-etinye n’ahx na
otu any[ si eji ejiji, ihe e jiri mara any[ d[ka mba, abx any[ na-abx, egwu any[ na
ete, omume na agwa any[ na-akpa.
Site na nkqwa a, o gos[r[ na, omenaala jikqtara ihe niile nke mmadx na-eme na ndx, d[ka xd[ nri
any[ na-eri, xd[ ejiji any[ na-eke, xd[ ah[a any[ na-azx, xd[ omume (agwa) mmadx na-eme. Ihe
nd[ a niile gbakwasara xkwx n’omenaala. Onye omume ya nupxrx isi n’usoro omenaala nd[ a, a
na-ele ya anya na q na-eme omume qlqrq qhxrx” ya bx omume nd[ “Ofes[“ nke na-adabagh[
n’usoro omenaala nd[ Igbo.
N’ime omenaala nd[ a, ekike bx otu ihe na-akacha apxta ihe n’qgbakq, nke na onye qbxla chqrq
ikiri ibe ya ma xd[ qgqdq o yi na xd[ e si were kwaa qgqdq ahx. Q bxkwa ejiji na-akqwa onye
mmadx bx na agbxrx o si na ya were pxta. Nd[ Igbo, Awxsa na Yoruba nwere ejiji ha, naagbanyegh[
na nd[ Igbo bx a hx nji e jiri gawa, a hx qcha a chara gawa. Nke a agagh[ eme ka
ejije nd[ Igbo bx njirimara ha hapx [pxta ihe. Ya mere Olekaibe (2012:220) jiri kwuo s[:
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Nd[ Igbo d[ka e si mara ha bx nd[ njem na-ad[ mma n’ ahx, agaala ebe d[ iche
iche bx obodo nd[ qzq ma werekwa ejiji nd[ ebe ha were lqta b[a gwakqta ya na
nke ala Igbo. Nke a meziri na onye qbxla na-eyizi ihe mas[r[ ya na oge o jiri
mas[ ya.
Nke a mere Odee jiri kwete n’ihe Olekaibe (2012:220) kwuru s[: ma etere xgba ma etere azx
omenaala bx omenaala, ejije nd[ Igbo ga-ad[gide qkpxtqrqkpx, nwata tolite o tokwuru. Q bxgh[
a hxchaa xzq a s[ nwata wete qkx. Omenaala ga-ad[ maka onye omenaala ya nwxrx anwxqla, ya
ka Nwadike (2006:26) jiri kwuo s[ “Onye as[kwala q gbasara m” q gbasakwara onye qbxla kpqrq
onwe ya qkammxta Igbo. Odee na-agbakwunye na q gbasara onye qbxla ma nd[ qkammxta Igbo
ma nd[ Igbo n’onwe ha [kwalite omenaala Igbo niile q kachas[ ejiji nd[ Igbo.
Mkpqlite Echiche
Mgbe xwa bidoro e nwegh[ ihe d[ka xwa ma ya fqdx akwa nke kacha ibe ya bx mmadx amagh[
na ya gba qtq ma fqdx [chqwa uwe nke q ga eyi n’ahx d[ka any[ gxtara n’akwxkwq (Genesis
3:10) otu Adam na Eve siri biri na-amagh[ na ha gba qtq tutu ruo oge ha tara mkpxrx osisi
Garden Eden nke mepere ha anya gosi ha na ha gba qtq. Otu a ka q d[ na mmalite ndx nd[ Igbo,
ma nwoke ma nwaany[ na xmx ntak[r[ amaghi na ha gba qtq. Ihe qjqq ad[gh[ n’oge ahx,
onwegh[ onye nwere ohere ile ibe ya anya n’qtq ya. Mana Ofoegbu (1975:2100 kwupxtara ihe
kpatara [gba qtq bx qnqdx nke mmadx hxtara onwe ya d[ka:
· Oke ahx mkpemqkx;
· Oke anwx qch[cha
· Ikwanya qkx n’okpuru [kpxkpq ka ahx kpere ha qkx n’oge oyi.
· Akwa eji akwa efe ad[gh[
· {gba qtq ga-enyere ndi nwoke aka ileru nwunye ha anya mara mgbe q gara ajq ije.
N’akwxkwq Ofoegbu (1975) d[ka Igbokwe (2010:4) siri kqwaa a chqpxtara akwa d[ iri abxq na
abxq na ihe qkpx nd[ egwupxtara na-agbata afq 900-1000 A.C. na Igbo ukwu. Nke gosiri na nd[
Igbo ji aka ha ekwe akwa tupu nd[ qcha ab[a. Q bx otu xzq ha si enyere onwe ha aka, xfqdx naakx
owu, xfqdx na ekpepxta eriri ngwq na nkwx, nd[ na-ekwe akwa ana-ekwe, nd[ na-akpa
mkpuru ana-akpa, nd[ xfqdx ana-akpa ihe qkpxkpa d[ iche iche d[ka ihe olu, qla nt[, okpu na ihe
qkpxkpa d[ iche iche ha ji achq onwe ha mma n’oge gboo. Ya ka Ofomata (2005:32) jiri
kwenyesi ike na nd[ Igbo gbasiri ike nwee anya nka iji ihe nq na gburugburu ha mepxta ihe gaabara
ha uru na ndx.
Ejiji nd[ Igbo Mgbe Ochie
Ejiji bx otu n’ime ihe nd[ d[ mkpa na ndx mmadx, nke na onye d[ ndx na-agba mbq [hx na o
kpuchitere qtq ya na-agbanyegh[ qnqdx xwa q hxtara onwe ya. Mgbe xwa bidoro e nwegh[ ihe
d[ka uwe ma ya fqdx akwa, nd[ mmadx na-ebi ndx ha na-amagh[ na ha gba qtq. Mgbe amamiihe
batawara ha n’ime, echiche ka a ga-esi eji ihe nd[ nq na gburugburu ha mepxta ihe abata. Ha e
were akwara ngwq na owu (kqt[n[) nke e ji aka were akpapxta qgqdq ha ji ekpuchi qtq. Owu nd[
a bx nke ha na-eji uri gbujie iji nweta xd[ xcha ha chqrq ka qgqdq ahx chawa.
Nke qzq bx mkpxrx olomgbo ha na-eyi n’ukwu, gbara n’xkwx na n’aka ma nyerekwa ya n’olu.
Ha na-enweta olomgbo nd[ a site na mkpxrx osisi, ha agbapuo ya ka eriri nwee ike banye n’ime
ya. Ha na-enwetakwa ya site n’iji osisi p[pxta ya ma mepuo ya ebe eriri ga-abata ka enwee ike
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yiri ya. Olomgbo nd[ a nwere xcha d[ iche iche maka qbxgh[ otu osisi ka ha si ap[pxta ya. Xd[
olomgbo d[ ga-akqwa nd[ kwes[r[ iyi ya na mgbe e kwes[r[ iyi ya. Nd[ nwaany[ nwere olomgbo
ha na-eyi, nd[ chiri echichi nwere nke ha. Nd[ a na-eyi n’ukwu na-ad[ ogologo kar[a nd[ a na-eyi
n’olu, n’aka na n’xkwx.
Ka mgbanwe na mmepe obodo batara ejiji nd[ gboo esikwa otu a gbanwee. Nd[ nna ebido [wa
qgqdq n’ukwu, nyara akwa mmiri n’olu ma jidekwa qt[ n’ubu aka maka [chx ijiji na [kq qkq
n’azx. Nd[ nke okenye nwere xmx xmx na agbarakwa qny[r[ma nke ha ji agx xmx xmx ole ha
nwere.
Nd[ nwaany[ na-eje mgbaji n’ukwu e ji kpuchie qtq ha, yiri qla nt[, olomgbo n’olu na qla aka
b[azie were owu isi kpaa isi ha. Nd[ okenye nwaany[ na-agbakwa qny[ma n’aka iji matakwa
xmx xmx ole ha nwere. Ha na-ete uri n’ahx ma sekwaa ihe osise n’ahx ha.
Xmxnwoke ka na-eto eto ya bx xmxokorob[a na-agba qtq tutu ruo mgbe ha ga-etoru [wara
qgqdq, mgbe ahx, ha eturuola ihe e ji nwoke eme.
Xmxagbqghqb[a na-eyi mgbaji na-aga ha ugboro ugboro n’ukwu iji kpuchie qtq ha.
Xmxagbqghqb[a torurula [lx di, na-eji ekereugbo n’ukwu, gbara ya n’aka iji mee ka nd[ mmadx
mata oge ha na-aga n’xzq. Nwaokorob[a nxrx xda ekereugbo ga-ele ya anya ugboro ugboro iji
mara ma q mas[r[ ya.
Xmxnwoke chiri echichi na-eyi nkalar[ ya na okpu nwaagwara e tinyere ugbene qkxkq maqbx
abxba ugo n’elu ya ma jidekwa mkpq n’aka ya na-akxpe iji ekupx ihe qjqq na-eme n’obodo. Nd[
qzq na-eyi nkalar[ bx nd[ nwere ihe nhxbaama ha mere n’obodo na nd[ dib[a. Onye qzq naadabagh[
n’ogo a yiri nkalar[ ha ga-enye ya ntaramaahxhx. Nd[ dib[a na-eyikwa mkpxrx mmiri
n’ukwu na n’olu ha. Nd[ Lqqlq ha na-eyi nkaenyi, ezego na qla nke ha na-eyi n’olu, n’ukwu na
n’aka ha, tinyere qdx ehi ha na-eji n’aka.
Qb[b[a nd[ qcha b[ara n’obodo any[ wetara mgbanwe d[ iche iche n’xd[ ejiji nd[ Igbo n’oge gboo.
Nd[ Igbo e]omiri omume nd[ qcha a, hapxzie nke ha. N’ihi nke a Igbokwe (2010:6) jiri kwuo s[:
“Xmxafq Igbo gbasoziri nzqxkwx nd[ qcha a n’usoro ejiji, nke bxkwanx ejewe
aghagh[ n’ejiji nd[ Igbo. Q bx naan[ xmxafq Igbo nd[ ahx ji qd[naala hiwe isi
bx nd[ tadoro eze n’usoro ejiji nd[ Arq n’oge emume”.
Ka o sila d[, ejiji e ji mara nd[ Igbo ugbu a bx nd[ a: xmxnwoke niile, ma nwata ma okenye naeyi
jqmpa. Nd[ chiri echichi na-eyi jqmpa na okpu na-acha mmemme, jide mkpara na akxpe
n’aka e ji ekupx ihe qjqq na-eme n’obodo. Nd[ eze, nd[ nze na qzq na-etinye abxba ugo maqbx
ugbene qkxkq n’okpu ha ma yirikwa nkalar[ n’olu na n’aka tyinyere agbalxxkwx ha ga-eyi
n’xkwx. Nd[ nne nwaany[ d[ka Anozie (2003:20) siri kwuo na-ama ukwu akwa abxq na efe obi,
kere [chafxisi, tee uri qnx na tanjele n’anya, yiri qlant[, olomgbo n’olu na qla aka n’aka.
Xmxnwaany[ nd[ chiri echichi na-eyi ukwu akwa jqqj[ abxq maqbx akweete, nke nq n’elu na
agbagote n’obi maka enwegh[ efe obi ha na-eyi ma werezie olomgbo a kpara ka efe obi yiri
n’obi, yiri olomgbo n’olu, n’aka na n’xkwx tinyekwa agbalxxkwx ha ga-eyi. Xmxokorob[a na
xmxagbqghqb[a n’oge ugbu a jizi eze tagide ejiji nwabekee hapxzie ejiji e ji mara xmx Igbo.
Xd[ U we d[ iche iche n’oge Ugbu a:
N’obodo niile gbaa gburugburu e nwere ekike e ji mara ha nke na ha kee ekike ha, mmadx pxgh[
[jx onye ebe q bx. Otu ahx ka q d[ na Na[jir[a, agbxrx nd[ d[ n’ime ya d[ka Awxsa, Igbo, Yoruba
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na qtxtx agbxrx nd[ qzq nwere ejiji e ji mara ha nke na, oge e nwere qgbakq n’obodo any[,
agbxrx qbxla na-eji ejiji ha were b[a ka q d[ mfe [mata onye bx onye na ebe onye si b[a.
Nd[ Igbo d[ka otu agbxrx na Na[jir[a nwere ejiji nke ha. Nne na nna, nwata, okorob[a na
agbqghqb[a, na nd[ chiri echichi nwere ejiji ha. D[ka Agxgx (2006:5) siri kqwaa:
“Xmxnwaany[ na-eke ukwu akwa abxq n’ukwu, yikwasa ya efe obi ma kee
[chafxisi ha; ha na-ebu akpa n’aka, iyeri nt[ na ihe olu ka ha ji achq onwe ha mma
tinyere qtanjere n’egbelereqnx ebe xfqdx n’ime ha na-egbu uri. Xmxnwoke n’aka
nke ha na-ama akwa n’obi na okpu ha na-ekpu n’isi, tinye mkpq ha na-eji n’aka.
Qtxtx mgbe ka xfqdx xmxnwoke chiri echichi na-etinye abxba maqbx ugbene ugo
n’okpu ha na-eriri xkwx ha na-agba. Xfqdx xmxnwoke nd[ Igbo na-anyakwa akpa
nwachi, qkacha nd[ dib[a n’aka”.
N’xbqch[ taa ihe agbanweela nd[ mmadx hapx ejiji ha banye na-ejije. Xmx okorob[a na
xmxagbqghqb[a ahapx ejiji kwes[r[ ha. Ya ka Ajaeree (200:66) ji kwuo “xmxntak[r[ na-esite na
nwata malite iji ejiji d[ka nd[ okenye”. Ejiji nd[ a mere qd[gh[ mfe [mata nwata, maqbx onye bx
okenye.
Ejiji nd[ a niile bx nnqq ihe nq n’qnqdx amagh[ nke a ga-eme ka mgbe qch[ch[ nd[ qcha batara
n’obodo any[. Nd[ Igbo wee hapx omenaala bx njirimara ha mewe omeneelu. Nke a mere ka xd[
uwe d[ iche iche batawa n’obodo d[ka:
1. Mini Skirts
2. Leggings
3. Hip Star
4. Hug-me/half cut
5. Kiss-me
6. Qnx gbajie boys
7. Onitsha show your back
8. Show you chest parade blouse/gowns
9. off shoulder
10. Spaghetti blouse/gowns
11. See through air condition dresses
12. Sleeveless gowns/blouses
13. One-hand blouse
14. Fish blouse
15. Fly-over
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16. Body hug
17. Short gowns
18. Half trousers
19. Hips show contour trousers
20. Short/mini fish skirt
21. Chin-chin blouse/show novel blouses
22. Hatter-neck blouse/gowns
23. Sleeveless
24. T-shirt
25. Gata-way
26. Indomi
27. {ma nd[ any[ bx
28. Ara (madness) y[ba boys/[ka m ay[ ara?
29. Women trouser
30. Suit
31. Jin
32. Packet shirt.
D[ka Igbokwe (2010:7) siri kwuo ka q d[ n’obodo any[ ugbu a, e nwere ekike e ji aga ah[a, qrx,
iku nwa, [gba egwu, [gba mkpe, [gba mgba, ngaghar[ iwe, ije agha, [gba bqqlx, ije mmemme, na
nke e ji anq n’xlq. Ya bx uwe qbxla onye Igbo nwere nwere oge o ji eyi ya na oge o kwes[r[ iyi
ya.
Qghqm d[ n’ejiji Nwabekee
Qb[b[a nd[ qcha wetere oke ihe mgbanwe nyere omenaala obodo any[. Nke na xmxafq Igbo q
kachas[ qgbq a (new generation) amagh[ nke ekwe na-akx n’ihe gbasara omenaala, ha ejiri ejiji
nd[ qcha galite. Ihe kpatara nke a d[ka Igbokwe (2010:9) siri kwuo bx ejigh[ omenaala Igbo
kpqrq ihe, oke agxmaakwxkwq, xd[ qrx ha na-arx na oke njepx site n’otu obodo ruo na nke qzq
si na ya banye obodo nd[ qcha. Ihe nd[ a niile jikqtara aka chere omenaala Igbo aka mgba.
Xd[ ekike a nd[ qgbq a na-eke ugbu a, metxtara ndx nd[ Igbo aka nke qjqq site n’isi ruo n’qdx.
D[ka qmxmaatx:
 Xd[ isi ha na-akpa
 {kpxcha iku anya
 Xd[ nzu ha na-ete n’ihu
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 Qgx olu ha na asxsx ha
 Xd[ ekike ha na-eke
 Xd[ nzu ha na-ete na mbq xkwx na mbq aka
 Qgxgara ije xkwx ha
 Xd[ isi nd[ nwoke na-akpa dgz.
Ihe nd[ a niile anagh[ ezipxta ezigbo ndx nwaafq nwere nsqpxrx n’ebe omenaala obodo ya nq.
Ka agwa qjqq si agbasa aka, n’afq ole na ole na-ab[a, q ga-ekpochapx omenaala njirimara nd[
Igbo. Onye qbxla abxrxzie nwabekee. Omenaala Igbo anwxq p[[, nyxq ka qkx. Nd[ Igbo mma
ha arxq.
Ntxziaka
Okwu a kpx n’qnx na Na[jir[a ugbu a bx ka mmepe ga-esi banye n’ime ime obodo d[ iche iche na
xzq a ga-esi wulite omenaala na qd[naala obodo any[ iji hx na obodo niile na-aga n’ihu. Ejije bx
otu n’ime omenaala e ji mara mba. D[ka nd[ Awxsa, e ji uwe babar[ga maqbx “chere ka m kwuo”
mara ha, nd[ Yoruba ka e ji agbada mara ma nd[ Igbo ka e ji jqmpa mara d[ka q d[ ugbu a. A b[a
n’agbxrx atq nd[ a, Awxsa na Yoruba na-eji ejiji ha ruo taa, ma nd[ Igbo ejigh[zi ekike ha kpqrq
ihe.
D[ka q d[ ugbu a, nd[ Igbo kwes[r[ izipxta omenaala ha ka q d[, kpaa agwa ka ezigbo nwafq hxrx
obodo ya n’anya, jie ejiji ka nd[ Igbo. Ka q d[ ugbu a q raka ahx [kqwa ihe d[ iche n’etiti
nwaany[ lxrx di na nwaagbqghqb[a maqbx onye nna na nwaokorob[a n’ala Igbo. Nke a naewetere
xmxokorob[a na xmxagbqghqb[a ihe mgbagwoju anya nke na a magh[ onye bx nne na
onye bx nna n’etiti qgbq a. Mkpar[, enwegh[ ugwu na nsqpxrx a na-ar[ ibe ya elu. Nd[ nne naama
ukwu akwa abxq nd[ nna eyiri jqmpa, n’eziokwu, q ga-akwanyere ha ugwu nke ukwuu, ma
sitekwa n’xzq d[ otu a weta mgbanwe n’obodo.
Ikeazx, nd[ nhazi agxmaakwxkwq na nd[ qch[ch[ ga-agba mbq [hx na e tinyere ejiji qd[naala d[ka
otu isiokwu a ga-amx n’omenaala Igbo. Nd[ mgbasa ozi ga na-etinye ejiji qd[naala n’igwe
mgbasa ozi iji mee ka qgbq a mara na nd[ Igbo nwere ejiji e ji mara ha.
Nch[kqta
Mba d[ iche iche n’xwa gbaa gburugburu nwere ejiji e ji mara ha, d[ka q d[ n’obodo any[ bx
Na[jir[a. Agbxrx atq kachas[ pxta ihe nwere omenaala na ejiji e ji mara ha. Ejiji nd[ a naegos[
pxta onye bx onye ma na-enyekwa mmadx ugwu na nsqpxrx n’obodo. Mana a b[a lee anya
n’ejiji nd[ nwa bekee weteere any[ lawagara n’ejiji nd[ omekome b[ara imebi obodo. Ka any[
txghar[a uche n’ejiji nd[ Igbo q ga-akara any[ mma maka na ejiji nd[ a abxgh[ njirimara nd[ Igbo.
Edensib[a
Agxgx, M.O. (2006). Nd[ Igbo na Akxkq ala ha. Nsukka: Eva-Unique
Ajaeree, C.A. (2002). Mmere mmere Igbo: Akwxkwq maka omenaala Igbo. Owerri: Okson
printing services.
Anozie, C.C. (2003). Igbokwenx: Akxkq na omenaala Nd[ Igbo. Enugu: Computer Edge
Publisher.
12
Ekwealor, C.C. (2010). Omenaala na Ewumewu Igbo. Onitsha: African First
Ekwuo?” N’qgbakq Nkxzi Mba Xwa Agba nke abxq. E ji Egbochi Omenaala Igbo. Nke
nd[ “Sxwakwa Igbo” Haziri n’xlq Ezumezu AIFCE: Owerri. Enugu Format Publishers
(Nig).
Fullen, D.D. (1979). Good News Bible: New York, Harper Collins Publishers.
Igbokwe, B.N. (2010). “Ejiji Qd[naala Nd[ Igbo: Q ga-ekwe mee ka q bx ka
Nwadike, I.U. (2006). “Amxmamx Igbo Kamgbe 1990” (Igbo Studies since
Ofoegbu, R. (1975). “Igbo National Dress And Acculturation” in Igbo Language and Culture:
Ogbalu F.C. Emenanjo E.N. ED. Ibadan: Oxford university press.
Olekaibe, C.C. (2012). “Nd[ Igbo na ejiji qd[naala ha: Nke gboo na nke
Printing & Publishing Enterprises.
Qfqmata, C.E. (2005). Ndezu Xtqasxsx Igbo nke nd[ Jun[q Sekqnd[r[.
the 1990s) in Jonurnal of Igbo Studies Vol. 1.
ugbu a” in Ojo. An International Journal of Igbo, African and Asian Studies Nnand[
Azikiwe University Awka. Edited by Dr. Nkechinyere Nwokoye.
13
ECHEKWAGH{ ASXSX IGBO N’EZINAXLQ: NSOGBU NA QGHQM D{ NA YA
Anxmxdx Mar[a
Ngalaba Na-Ahx Maka Qmxmx Asxsx Ala Na[Jir[A
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
phone: 08034509775 e-mail: constancecebayo@yahoo.com
Xm[edemede
Asxsx na-arx qtxtx qrx d[ mkpa n’etiti mba na mba nke gxnyere igosipxta onye na mmekqr[ta
mmadx na ibe ya. Ederede a na-elegide anya n’qrx ezinaxlq n’ichekwa asxsx Igbo. N’obodo ebe
e nwere qtxtx asxsx d[ iche iche d[ka Na[jir[a, a ga-ahx na asxsx bx ihe e ji amata mmadx na ebe
mmadx si pxta. Asxsx bara uru nke ukwuu n’agxmaakwxkwq nd[ ntorob[a. Q bx site n’asxsx ka
ha si amata omenaala, qd[naala na akparamagwa nke obodo ha. Asxsx d[ mkpa maka ndx na
qd[nihu nd[ ntorob[a n’ime obodo. Agbxrx maqbx qgbq enwegh[ asxsx na-egosipxta na nd[ ahx
enwegh[ ike [sx, [gx maqbx dee asxsx ahx. Ederede a ga-atxle ihe ndi na-ebute qnwx asxsx Igbo.
D[ka enwegh[ nchekwa na mmas[ n’ebe ezinaxlq nd[ Igbo di. Q ga-elebaanya n’ihe qnwx a gaebute
n’ikpeazx. Q ga-edepxta qtxtx ihe nd[ a ga-eme iji kwxs[ ikuku qjqq a ga-ebute qnwx
asxsx Igbo. Na-agbanyegh[ ihe iyi egwu a, e nwere ike ime ihe xfqdx ka qnqdx qjqq a gbanwee
ma ghara inwe isi. Iji mee ka ederede a kwxrx ch[m ma m[pxta mkpxrx qma, odee sooro usoro
[gaghar[ n’ezinaxlq xfqdx iji hxta otu nd[ ezinaxlq si eji asxsx enwe mmekqr[ta, jxqkwa xmxaka
na nd[ nne na nna ajxjx were site n’qs[sa ha nyere mata otu nghqta ha d[ n’ebe asxsx Igbo d[.
Ndubata
Asxsx bx epum maqbx ihe qkpx eke kere xwa jiri kee xwa na ihe niile d[ n’ime ya d[ka any[ hxrx
n’akwxkwq nsq. Ezinaxlq bx ebe mbx mmadx na ibe ya na-enwe mmekqr[ta. Q bx ebe nwata naamxta
asxsx nne ya site n’i]omi nd[ nne na nna, xmxnne ya, ikwu na ibe. Nke a mere ederede a
ji gbakwas[ xkwx n’ezinaxlq bx ebe nd[ ntorob[a any[ ha kwes[r[ ilere anya maka nchekwa asxsx
ha. Ya bx na q na-arxtx aka na mkpa q d[ ezinaxlq [sxrx xmx ha na-ab[anx asxsx ha.
D[ka Omeraa Okeke (2010:13) rxtxrx aka n’ederede Isaye (1978:86), “E wepx asxsx, udo,
id[nootu na agamnihu agagh[ ad[”. Asxsx na-eweta mmepe obodo na ihe [kwxrx ch[m mgbe nd[
nwe ya ji ya akpata akx, jiri ya na-arxpxta nkanxxzx na ihe nd[ qzq yiri ya. Ihe jikqtara asxsx na
obodo d[ka Egonu, Anumudu na Maduike (2013:83) siri kqwaa bx ihe d[ mkpa nke gbasara ito
na mmepe ihe qbxla, mmata onye, [kwxrx ch[m na otuto nke mmadx”.
Asxsx
Asxsx bx otu n’ime ihe e ji akqwapxta agbxrx mmadx si na ya. Q bx xzq e si ezi ozi, bxrxkwa
xzq e si eche echiche na xzq e si amata akparamaagwa na omume mmadx. E ji asxsx amata
mmadx.
Anasixdx (2007:140), kqwara asxsx d[ka “… e jiri mara mmadx, nke anagh[ eme ya ndapxta
n’qnx”. A na-amx ya amx. Q na-eto eto, q d[ ndx, o nwekwara ike [nwx. Asxsx nwere ike [nwx
mgbe nd[ nwe ya kwxs[r[ [sx ya asx. Asxsx d[ mkpa na mmekqr[ta mmadx na ibe ya.
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A b[a n’qtxtx asxsx e nwere n’ala any[ bx Na[jir[a, asxsx Igbo kachas[ n’qnxqgxgx. D[ka q d[,
steeti isii nd[ a na-asx asxsx Igbo, Ab[a, Anambra, Delta, Ebonyi, Imo na Rivers. Nd[ Igbo pxrx
iche n’agbxrx nd[ qzq nq n’ala Na[jir[a site n’asxsx ha. D[ka any[ maara na asxsx bx ihe naegosipxta
onye, agbxrx maqbx qgbq, q pxtara na q bxrx ma nd[ nwe asxsx Igbo ejigh[ ya kpqrq
ihe, oge ga-eru mgbe agbxrx ahx na nd[ ha ga-amx n’qd[nihu agagh[ enwe ike inwe ihe e ji
amata ha. Agbxrx a ga-abx mba maqbx obodo a kachapxrx aha ha na mbaxwa n’ihi ejigh[ asxsx
ha kpqrq ihe. Agbxrx a ga-abx nd[ enwegh[ ike iji asxsx ha kqwapxta ihe qbxla maqbx gosipxta
agwa, nghqta na amamihe ha. D[ka Lyone (1981:4) siri kqwaa, q d[gh[ asxsx mmadx qbxla d[ ma
q bxrx na e nwegh[ nd[ na-asx. ya asx. Ya mere o ji d[ mkpa ichekwa asxsx Igbo maka qganiihu
nd[ Igbo.
Nhichapx asxsx Igbo n’qgbq a ga-ebute qtxtx ihe a ga-eji tie “m makwarala” n’ihi na nd[ nke a
metxtara agagh[ enwe ebe a ga-agxnye ha n’xwa maqbx ebe ha kwx akwx. Ya bx na e nweziri
ike gxkonye ha na mba nd[ qzq a na-anx asxsx ha. N’otu aka ahx, nd[ a gxnyere ha n’obodo ha
ga-ewere ha ka nd[ enwegh[ agxgxala (history) maqbx ebe ha siri pxta maql[.
Asxsx bx xzq e si enyefe mmxta na qd[naala/omenala n’aka nd[ a ga-amx n’qd[nihu. Ya mere
Emenanjq (1999:83-90) jiri s[ “Asxsx bx igodo ji obi mmadx, q bxrx na o fuo, nd[ ahx efuola.
Asxsx furu efu bx agbxrx furu efu, agbxrx furu efu bx omenala furu efu, omenaala ahx
agagh[kwa enwe ihe mmxta, ihe niile banyere ha ga-abx ihe e kpofuru ekpofu. Ya bx na e leda
asxsx, omenaala ya agagh[ enwe nchekwa.
Q d[ mkpa ka nd[ Igbo mata na osisi qbxla toro eto nwere nd[ leziri ya anya ma nyekwa ya nri
maqbx nchekwa nke o jiri too. Asxsx na-akwalite [d[notu na mmepe. Ozi qbxla sitere n’aka nd[
qch[ch[ n’olu nd[ ahx na-anx ma na-aghqta ya nke qma, na-aga nke qma. N’ime asxsx atq a
nabatara n’qmxmx akwxkwq – Hausa, Igbo na Yoruba d[ka a hxrx na NPE (2004:46), ka q d[
taa, ihe any[ na-ahx ugbu a n’ebe asxsx Igbo d[ bx ihe nd[ ekwes[gh[ [nx na nt[. Nd[ Igbo anagh[
echekwazi asxsx ha, ebe agwa qjqq a sitekwara n’ezinaxlq. Site n’ederede nke Egonu, Anumudu
na Maduike (2013:83) d[ka Idude (2002:62-63) siri kqwaa, asxsx na-ad[ ndx naan[ mgbe nd[ nwe
ya na-asx ya asx, jiri kwa ya na-akpar[taxka n’olu ala ha maqbx olundi.
Asxsx nd[ Olundi
Asxsx Igbo bx asxsx xdaolu na nke olund[. Nke a mere asxsx Igbo jiri bxrx asxsx pxrx iche
n’asxsx niile e nwere n’ala any[ bx Na[jir[a. Q bx nke a na-ebute qtxtx nd[iche n’etiti
mkpxrxokwu Igbo na nghqta ha. Site na mgbal[ nd[ qkammxta any[ n’asxsx Igbo, e nweela Igbo
izugbe n’etiti olund[ nd[ a.
Olund[/Oluonye:
Olund[ bx asxsx Igbo e jiri chuo nwata ara. Q bx asxsx nne nwata. Olund[ bx asxsx nd[ obodo
nwe ha na-asx ma na-aghqtakwa ya nke qma n’onwe ha. Egonu, Anumudu na Maduike
(2013:83) hxtara olundi d[ka asxsx pxtara n’otu ebe nke na q d[gh[ ebe o siri b[akwute ha.
Nwadike (2010:239) rxtxrx aka n’ihe Olaofe (1999) kwuru s[ xmxakwxkwq anagh[ asx asxsx
nne na nna ha, ha amagh[kwanx asxsx Bekee n’ihi mgbe xfqdx ha anagh[ eji asxsx nd[ ahx kpqrq
ihe. Nke a mere ha ka ha d[ ka xsx na-enwegh[ ebe q kwxrx akwx. Ihe ha na-asx bx Engligbo.
N’ala any[ bx Na[jir[a, olundi bx asxsx nd[ ahx sitere n’qkpx bido ruo ugbu a. Ha gxnyere Hausa,
Igbo, Yoruba, Efik, Idoma dgz. Q bx asxsx mbx ahx nwata bidoro inx n’xlq nna ya. A b[a
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n’asxsx Igbo, e nwekwaz[r[ olund[ d[ka olundi Qnicha, olundi Ngwa, olund[ Owere, olund[
Qhaf[a na Ab[r[ba dgz.
D[ka Fafunwa (1983:395) siri kqwaa, nwata na-amxta ihe nke qma site n’olu asxsx nne na nna
ya. Egonu (2010:120) na mgbakwunye ihe Temibola (1988) kwuru s[ na qtxtx obodo nd[ mepere
emepe jiri asxsx ha mxq ihe qmxmx na nke nkuzi nke nkanxzx. Q d[gh[kwanx ka nke a siri d[ ire
maqbxgh[ na ha nyere asxsx ha ezi nchekwa site n’iji ya na-akpar[taxka n’xlq ha d[ iche iche naasxkwa
ya asx na-emegh[ ihere qbxla.
Asxsx Igbo Izugbe
Igbo izugbe bx asxsx Igbo nke ahx q d[gh[ agbxrx ga-as[ na ha nwe ha. Q bx asxsx Igbo nke qha
nd[ Igbo na-asx ma na-aghqtakwa. Q d[ mfe na nghqta kar[a olundi.
Ihe Nchekwa Asxsx Pxtara
Site na nghqta qkpqrq, nchekwa pxtara ime ka ihe d[r[, ka ihe kwudosieke, ka ihe ghara [nwx
anwx maqbx bxrx ihe agagh[ anx maka ya qzq. Nchekwa asxsx bx ime ka asxsx Igbo d[r[, ghara
[laazx maqbx [nwx anwx ma q bxkwanx [bx ihe e chefuru echefu. Qtxtx ihe ka a chqrq maka
nchekwa asxsx Igbo. Ihe nd[ a ka a txrx anya na ha ga-esite n’aka nd[ nwe asxsx ahx bxkwanx
nke ga-ebido n’ezinaxlq. Ya bx na q bx qrx d[[r[ nne na nna, xmxnne, ikwu na ibe wee ruo
n’obodo, n’xlqakwxkwq nakwa n’ebe gqqmenti nq. A ga-eme nke a site n’[sx ya n’ebe xzq any[
d[ iche iche, iji ya akpar[taxka, [mx ya amx n’xlqakwxkwq any[ d[ iche iche, ide ya ede na ihe
nd[ qzq yiri ya.
Ihe Nd[ na-Ebute Asxsx Igbo Inwx:
Qtxtx ihe so ebute nsogbu a asxsx Igbo nwere. Site na nchqpxta na ajxjx qnx, odee chqpxtara na
nsogbu a sitere n’aka any[ bx nd[ nne na nna, nd[ gqqmenti, xmxakwxkwq, nd[ nkuzi na nd[ niile
na-elekqta qmxmx akwxkwq. Ibe (2006:38) hxtara nke a mgbe q s[r[ “qnqdx a nd[ nne na nna,
xlqakwxkwq, na nd[ nkuzi dowere asxsx Igbo n’oge gara aga mere ka q d[ ka asxsx Igbo abagh[
uru na ihe na-eme ihere”. Nch[kqta ihe ga-eme ka asxsx Igbo nwxq bx enwegh[ nchekwa ya bx
asxsx nke gbadoroxkwx n’ezinaxlq.
Nd[ nne na nna achqgh[ ka xmx ha tinye ihe qmxmx Igbo d[ka ihe qmxmx n’xlqakwxkwq. Ha
anagh[ aba maqbx agx xmx ha aha Igbo. Ha anagh[ asxrx xmx ha asxsx Igbo n’xlq ha d[ iche
iche, q bxlad[ nd[ nke na-agagh[ nnukwu akwxkwq n’ime ha. Nd[ gqqmenti n’aka nke ha ad[gh[
eleba anya n’ihe qmxmx a, ha ad[gh[ enye iwu ka a na-amx ya amx n’xlqakwxkwq. Gqqmenti
anagh[ enye nd[ na-akxzi Igbo nkwado qbxla. Nd[ nkuzi n’onwe ha na-ata xmxakwxkwq ahxhx
maka [sx asxsx Igbo na klaas[. Xfqdx xlqakwxkwq nd[ kwxrx onwe ha ka na-emekwa nke a ruo
taa. Nke a bx ihe qjqq jqgburu udele na njq. Nke qzq bx na oge a na-enye maka nkuzi na qmxmx
asxsx Igbo ad[gh[ ka nke e nyere qmxmx asxsx Bekee. Ihe qzq so na-adqla asxsx Igbo azx bx
enwegh[ akwxkwq qgxgx na qmxmx Igbo. Xfqdx n’ime nd[ nkuzi a gxrx Igbo ad[gh[ akxzi ya
otu o kwes[r[.
Anumudu (2006:46-49) hxkwara qnqdx qjqq a mgbe q s[r[ “Asxsx Igbo d[ka otu n’ime asxsx nd[
e nwere n’obodo any[ bx Na[jir[a, etochabegh[ otu o kwes[r[ [d[ ka asxsx Hausa na Yoruba…”
Ihe asxsx qbxla [nwx pxtara bx na nd[ na-asx ya pere mpe maqbx na q d[gh[ nd[ na-asx ya bx
asxsx. Xd[ ihe d[ otu a na-ebute “Taa mechie qnx”. Ihe d[ otu a na-egbu mmxq ma na-eyi nd[ a
agxnyere na mbaxwa nd[ qzq xjq. Nchqpxta gosiri na qnxqgxgx nd[ Igbo kar[r[ nke nd[ Hausa na
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nke nd[ Yoruba ma e lee ya anya n’xzq qzq, asxsx Igbo a a ma ama nke qma na mba xwa bxz[
nke na-achq [nwx anwx ma any[ lee anya n’qnxqgxgx nd[ na-asx ya.
Asxsx {px N’qnqdx Ya/{gbanwe Agbanwe:
Asxsx [px n’qnqdx ya pxtara na nd[ nwe ya ad[gh[ asxkwa ya qzq otu o kwes[r[. Ha ad[gh[kwa
ede ya ede maqbx agx ya nke qma. N’qnqdx a, nd[ nke a ga-agbasa kar[a bx qgbq na-ab[anx.
D[ka Crystal (2003:294) siri kqwaa, ebe a na-ahxkar[ xd[ nsogbu a bx ebe nd[ na-asx asxsx ahx
d[ ntak[r[ maqbx ebe ha pere mpe. Xfqdx ihe nwere ike ibute mgbanwe asxsx qbxla gxnyere,
ibikqta qnx nke mmxrx mmx (xmx nd[ a mxtara site na nd[ biburu ebe ahx). N’qnqdx d[ otu , nd[
ha binyeere maqbx nd[ a b[akwutere ga-achq ka nd[ mb[amb[a a sxwa asxsx ha. Site n’xzq d[ otu
a ka ha is atxfu asxsx e jiri mara ha. Ya bx na ka ha na-asx asxsx nd[ qzq a, ka asxsx ha na-anwx.
Site n’agxgxala, asxsx [gbanwe bx ihe na-eme eme n’ihi na asxsx nd[ qzq a qtxtx mba xwa naasx
nwere ka ha si nweta asxsx ha site na nke nd[ qzq. D[ka Munzali (2005:3) siri hx ya taa,
asxsx nd[ Hausa, Nupe, Effik, Idoma, Kanuri, Yoruba na Igbo so na nd[ nq n’qnqdx [nwx anwx.
N’otu aka ahx, asxsx nd[ qzq a akpqgh[ aha ebe a n’ala Na[jir[a sokwa na nd[ na-achq [nwx
anwx. Site na nchqpxta na ihe nd[ a hxrxla, xfqdx mmadx nd[ qkwa ha d[ elu anagh[ asxrx xmx
ha asxsx Igbo kama, ha na-asxrx ha asxsx Bekee. Nke a na-eme ka xmx ha ghara [ma asxsx ha.
Nd[ nke gxrx akwxkwq n’etiti any[ sokwa ebute nsogbu nke mgbanwe asxsx Igbo. Ihe qzq naebute
nsogbu a bx n’ihi mbikqta maqbx xgwara asxsx d[ iche iche a na-asx n’obodo nd[ mepere
emepe.
N’akxkx nke qzq, xmxakwxkwq anabatagh[ ya, ha enwegh[ mmas[ na ya. Ha chere na q d[gh[
mkpa [mx ya d[ka otu n’ime ihe qmxmx n’xlqakwxkwq. Ibe (2006:38), hxtara nsogbu nke si
n’aka nd[ nne na nna wee s[ “… qnqdx nd[ nne na nna, nd[ nlekqta xlqakwxkwq na nd[ nkuzi
dowere asxsx Igbo n’oge gara aga mere ka q d[ ka ihe abagh[ uru na ihe na-eme ihere.” Xfqdx
mgbe ka a na-ana nwaakwxkwq qbxla sxrx Igbo nha maqbx nye ya otu ntaramahxhx maqbx nke
qzq maka [sx asxsx ya. Nke a mere e ji eleda nd[ gxrx Igbo n’ogo Mahadum anya. Nd[ nlekqta
na nd[ isi xlqakwxkwq pra[mar[ na sekqnd[r[ anagh[ ama qkwa ya ka ihe d[ mkpa [mx amx.
Omume qjqq a, bx otu qkpxrxkpx ihe e edepxtara n’qgbakq nd[ xka katqlik nke e nwere n’Awka.
Otu mpaghara ihe nch[kqta ya bx:
Q bx ihe mwute na ihe mgbagwoju anya na nd[ Igbo anagh[ akwado asxsx Igbo.
N’ihi nke ahx, asxsx ahx na-anwxzi anwx nke na q na-arahx [hx onye Igbo [sx
Igbo nke qma na-agwagh[ ya asxsx Bekee maqbx gxq ma deekwa asxsx Igbo ede
(Dike, 2009:17). Omume a na-agbawa isi, mana q gbasara onye niile.
Site n’ihe nd[ a niile na-eme, oge na-ad[gh[ anya, asxsx nd[ a xkwx ha esigh[ ike q
kachas[ asxsx Igbo ga-abx asxsx nke nd[ Bekee kpagburu akpagbu. Asxsx ala Na[jir[a nd[ qzq
nwekwara ike [nq qnqdx a. Ya bx na q bxrx ma e nwegh[ ihe e mere iji gbochie ihe qjqq a, asxsx
nd[ ahx ga-anyx ka qkx. Ihe nke a ga-apxta bx na agagh[ enwekwa mkpar[taxka na nzipx ozi
n’etiti nd[ nwe asxsx ahx. Nke a pxtara na a ga-enwe ngwakqta asxsx ahx n’ime asxsx nke qha
mmadx na-asx.
N’ebe asxsx Igbo d[, asxsx bekee ga-akpagbu ya n’ihi otu nd[ Igbo si asx asxsx Bekee, ma nd[
gxrx akwxkwq n’ime any[ na nd[ bara xba, q bxrx na e megh[ ihe qbxla asxsx Igbo ga-anwx
anwx. Qsxsx asxsx Igbo d[ mkpa n’ezinaxlq any[ ha
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Ihe Echekwagh[ Asxsx Igbo ga-apxta/qghqm d[ na ya
A na-as[ na asxsx anwxqla mgbe nd[ nwe ya anagh[ asx ya asx, maqbx jiri ya kpqrq ihe. Nke a
na-apxtakar[ ihe ma q bxrx na e jigh[ ya akxziri xmxaka ihe. Omume qjqq a na-eji nwayq nwayq
ebido wee ruo mgbe a gagh[ amakwa ya qzq. Ya mere Matthew (2007:216), jiri rxtx aka
n’ederede nke q s[r[ n’asxsx Bekee “Language death is defined as the ultimate loose or
disappearance of a language, especially when speakers shift progressively to another or others”.
Nke a na-akqwa na asxsx nwere ike jiri nwayq nwxq maqbx nwxq n’otu ntabianya.
Echekwagh[ asxsx any[ ga-eme ka xmx any[ ghara [ma asxsx ha, omenala na agxgxala nd[ obodo
ha. Ha agagh[ enwe ike soro na mkpar[taxka nd[ Igbo nq na ya. Ha enwegh[ ike [txpxta alo n’ihi
amagh[ ka e si ekwu uche ha n’asxsx nne na nna ha. Ha agagh[ enwe ike [kqwa ihe bx nsogbu ha
maqbx qch[chq ha n’qgbakq nd[ Igbo qbxla. Onye qbxla amagh[ asxsx ya q kachas[ asxsx Igbo
na-ataja ya ataja ma bxrxkwa onye a na-ach[ qch[ maqbx jijee ya njije.
Q kqwakwara na asxsx iji nwayq nwxq pxtara na asxsx ahx gwakqtara qnx na nke qha mmadx
na-asx. Ya mere xfqdx asxsx a na-asx mgbe ochie n’ala any[ bx Na[jir[a jiri bxrx ihe e chefuru
echefu. Asxsx nd[ a gxnyere nd[ ahx nd[ na-asx ya pere mpe. Ajxjx any[ ugbu a kwes[r[ [bx, g[n[
ka a ga-eme iji chekwaa asxsx Igbo ka q ghara [nwx?
Ihe A Ga-eme Iji Gbochie Nsogbu a:
Qtxtx ihe d[ nke ga-enye aka gbochie oke qjqq a batara n’ime mkp[r[/ak[ nkwx nke ga-atutelite
asxsx Igbo n’qnwx a q chqrq [nwx. Ihe nd[ a gxnyere;
 Nd[ nne na nna kwes[r[ [ba xmx ha aha Igbo kar[a aha Bekee maqbx aha sitere n’asxsx qzq.
Aha nd[ d[ ka Nkeonyenasqya, Nkemd[r[m, Nkemakqlam, Kemjika, A]xr[ka, dgz.
 A gana-eji asxsx Igbo na-enwe mmekqr[ta d[ka: n’ikwu okwu, [kq akxkq, n’xlqah[a, n’xlq
ekpere, n’xlqakwxkwq na ebe nd[ qzq d[ iche iche qkachakwa n’ezinaxlq nd[ Igbo niile
 Ihe odide niile na ngxpxta ha n’agbakq nd[ Igbo niile kwes[r[ [bx n’asxsx Igbo iji mee nd[
niile nq ebe ahx enwee ike ghqta ihe a na-ekwu
 A ga-enye iwu ka asxsx Igbo bxrx ihe a ga-amx site n’xlqakwxkwq qtaakara ruo n’ogo
mahadum na steeti niile na-asx Igbo n’ala Na[jir[a.
 A ga-enyekwa iwu ka asxsx Igbo soro n’otu ihe qmxmx a ga-eji anabata nwaakwxkwq
[banye na mahadum ala any[ bx Na[jir[a.
 Ka nd[ nnqchite anya Na[jir[a n’obodo d[ iche iche d[ n’xwa jiri asxsx Igbo na-agbasa
omenaala na qd[naala nd[ Igbo qkachas[ n’obodo nd[ mepere emepe ebe nd[ Igbo bi.
 Ka xlqqrx na-ahx maka mgbasa ozi n’ala any[ na-ekwupxta ya oge niile mkpa q d[ ka nd[ nne
na nna na-akxziri xmx ha asxsx Igbo mgbe ha d[ na nwata.
 Ka a na-enwe qgbakq nd[ Igbo iji na-atxtelita mmxq nd[ Igbo banyere asxsx ha site n’oge ruo
n’oge.
 Ka nd[ gqqmenti, nd[ nkuzi na onye Igbo qbxla soro n’[gbasa ozi a.
 Ka gwwmenti steeti niile na-asx Igbo na-akpq oku qgbakq iji na-akxziri/agwa nd[ Igbo mkpa
q d[ mmadx iji asxsx ya kpqrq ihe.
 Ka nd[ na-ahazi ihe qmxmx n’xlqakwxkwq depxta qmxmx qgxgx, nke odide na nke qsxsx
iche n’usoro [kxzi Igbo d[ka q d[ n’asxsx Bekee.
 A ga-enwe qtxtx igwe kqmpxta na intanet ga-enye aka n’ihe odide na nkqwa okwu Igbo.
 A ga-akxzikwa Igbo ka ihe qmxmx ozuruigbo (G.S. course) n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu na
mahadum.
 A ga-enwe ihe egwuregwu xmxaka n’Igbo n’xlq mgbasaozi ala any[ d[ka e si eme ya n’asxsx
Yoruba na Hausa.
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 Q ga-ad[ mma iwepxta otu xbqch[ n’afq kpqq ya xbqch[ nd[ Igbo (Igbo day) nke q ga-abx na
ihe niile a ga-eme xbqch[ ahx ga-abx ihe gbasara nd[ Igbo d[ka ngosipxa uwe na akwa,
erimeri, omenaala, egwu Igbo, ngwaqrx ubi dgz.
 A ga-enye ohere xmxakwxkwq ime mkpar[taxka na asqmpi nd[ qzq d[ka ederede nke gaenwe
ihe nrita nye xmxakwxkwq na nd[ nkuzi iji gbaa ha ume.
 Gqqmenti ga-ahx na akwxkwq e ji akxziri xmxakwxkwq ihe site n’qtaakara ruo n’ogo
mahadum dabara adaba bx nke ga-akxziri xmxaka ihe nd[ ga-abara ha uru na ndx.
 Gqqmenti na xlqakwxkwq nd[ nwere ike ime nke a kwes[r[ inye nwa akwxkwq qbxla gafere
nke qma n’ule Igbo ohere [gx akwxkwq n’efu.
 Ka nd[ nta akxkq redio na televishqn jisie ike na-agxpxta akxkq ha nke qma n’asxsx Igbo.
 Ka nd[ nne na nna hapx xmx ha ka ha gxq/mxq asxsx Igbo d[ka ihe qmxmx n’xlqakwxkwq d[
elu. Xmxnne any[ nd[ gxrx Igbo nke qma kwes[r[ ka a na-eme ha nd[isi n’qgbakq nd[ Igbo
qbxla. D[ka any[ maara na ilu bx mmanx na nnu nd[ Igbo ji eri okwu, q bx site n’[sx asxsx
Igbo nke qma ka e ji amata ilu na okwu dabara adaba.
Mmechi
Q bx ezie na asxsx Igbo anagh[ aga n’ihu otu o kwes[r[ ma a txnyewere ya n’asxsx nd[ Hausa na
Yoruba, site n’otu nd[ Igbo si asxrx ya xmx ha n’ezinaxlq mana e nwere olile anya na q bxrx na
nd[ Igbo jiri asxsx ha kpqrq ihe, q ga-enye aka. A ga-enwe mmepe obodo na nrxpxta qrx a hxrx
anya/bara uru. Nd[ Igbo ga-enwe nkwuwa okwu na mba xwa. Omenaala na agxgxndx ha ga-abx
ihe a ga-arx na mba xwa. Any[ achqgh[ ka asxsx Igbo laa ka Latin nke a na-anx naan[ n’xka nd[
Katqliki ugbu a. Asxsx ka chqrq mmeziwanye, q bxkwanx qrx d[[r[ any[ imezi site n’ezinaxlq
any[ d[ iche iche maka qd[mma nke any[ na nke xmx xmx any[ na-ab[anx
Ntxziaka/Alo
O kwes[r[ ka nd[ nne na nna n’xzq pxrxiche jiri na nwata kxziwere xmx ha asxsx ha ma nyekwa
ha ohere [sx asxsx ha n’xlq ha d[ iche iche. Ka xmxakwxkwq na nd[ nkuzi na-enwe mmas[
n’qmxmx na [kxzi Igbo. Ka any[ mata na asxsx any[ nwxq, na any[ agagh[kwa enwe ebe any[
kwxrx akwx. Q ga-ebutere any[ [lazx n’ihe qbxla.
Edensib[a
Anas[xdx, B.N. (2007). Language and Literature in a developing country: Essays in Honour of
Professor B.O. Oluikpe. African first publishing Ltd.
Crystal, D. (2003). A dictionary of linguistic and phonetics (5th ed) Maiden, massachusetti:
Blackwell publishing.
Dike, O. (2009). “The fortunes of Igbo language: On the rise of twindling”, fides, vol. 15.1
January 24-February 7.
Egonu, N., Anumudu, M.U. and Maduike, I.M. (2013). “Importance of Indigenous language in
National Development: The Case of the Igbo Language”. Qkpxlq Journal of Arts and
Cultural Heritages National Commussion for Museums and Monument. Owerri:
Emenanjo, E.N. (1999). Language Endanger, Native Speakers and Language Empowerment in
Nigeria: Theory and Reality vol. 1 ed. Nolue Emenanjo and Patrick Becambo. Aba.
National Institute for Nigerian languages.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (2004). National Policy on Education.
19
Ibe, J.N. (2006). Nkuzi Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq Sekqnd[r[. igbo ga-ad[. Jqnal ngalaba qmxmx asxsx
ala Na[jir[a, AIFCE.
Lyons, J. (1981). Language and Linguistics: An Introduction. Cambridge University press.
Emenanjo, E.N. (1999). Language Edanger, Nature speakers and language empowerment
in Nigeria: Theory and reality. Vol. 1 ed. Nolue Emenanjo na Patrick Bleamba, Aka
National Institute for Nigerian Languages.
Mmadike, B. (2010). “Generation of Igbo extraction without a language.” Sxwakwa Igbo
Kqnfrence
Munzall, J. (2005). Nigerian Languages and Linguistics in the era of information and
communication technology. In Ndimele O. (ed) pp 27-32.
Nwadike, A.A. (2010). “Agwa nd[ Igbo n’ebe qmxmx Asxsx Igbo D[: Nsogbu megide otuto
Asxsx Igbo”. Zaria Journal of Linguistics and Literary Studies. Vol. 4. No. 1.
Omera-Okere (2010). Rebranding Nigeria Image projection; The role of language. Department
of Nigerian Languages. Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe.
20
QCHX D{KA ARX N’ALA AKQKWA
Opara, C.D.
Directorate of General Studies Federal University of Technology, Owerri
phone: 08037975253 e-m-ail: ayoziechiomaa@gmail.com
Na
Onwubie, B.C.
Department Of Linguistics And Nigerian Languages
Alvan Ikoku Federal College Of Education, Owerri
Phone: 08032676115; e-mail: bibymygirl@gmail.com
Xm[edemede
Nd[ Igbo bx nd[ kwenyere na njq na-emebi ndx, na-eweta ndqghachi azx na ndx mmadx. Ha
kwenyesikwara ike na ihe qjqq qbxla mmadx mere nwechara xd[r[ njq q bx ma nwekwaa ebe a
gxnyere ya. E nwere xd[r[ ihe qjqq nd[ Igbo maara d[ka arx. Q bx ihe jqrq njq n’onwe ya ma
sigbuo onwe ya n’isi d[ka mmadx igbu onwe ya maqbx onye chi ya dewere ndx n’ihi q bx naan[
chi kere ndx kwes[r[ iwerekwa ya mgbe qbxla o ji chqq, nd[ Igbo anagh[ anabata xd[ ndx a, o
rukwara inyi n’ihu Chineke n’ihi o kwuru na onye egbula qchx (Exodus 20:13). Mana o nwee
onye qbxla danyere n’ime ya, q ga-enwer[r[ omenaala onye metara ihe qjqq ahx ga-eme iji were
hichapx onwe ya ihe qjqq o metara ma kopukwa onwe ya ihe qjqq o konyere onwe ya n’olu. Nke
a mere ka ebumnuche nchqcha a bxrx [chqpxta ihe bx arx, qchx, ihe na-akpata igbu qchx, xd[
qchx d[ iche iche, ihe a na-eme onye gburu qchx, qghqm d[ n’igbu qchx n’ala Akqkwa. Site na
nchqcha e mere, a chqpxtara n’oge gboo, onye mere arx, emerxqla ala. A na-erefu onye d[ otu a
erefu, gbuo maqbx ya akwaa ala d[ka otu arx ya siri d[, mana n’oge ugbu a, nd[ Igbo enwegh[zi
mmas[ n’ileba anya n’ihe gbasara arx nke qchx so n’otu n’ime ha. Igbu qchx bxzi ofe nkupu,
qtxtx mmadx txmadx nd[ qgaranya na-ahxta mmadx ibe ha d[ka qkxkq e ji achx aja, iji wee bxrx
qgaranya, nqrq n’qkwa d[ elu, chekwaa onwe ha, nqtxkwuo n’xwa kar[a afq ole Chukwu nyere
ha. Ebe xfqdx na-egbu qchx mgbe ha chqrq ihe n’aka nwa ogbenye na-enwetagh[ d[ka ala na ihe
nd[ qzq gas[ na-echegh[ nnukwu ihe ga-adakwas[ ha n’qd[niihu. Xfqdx nd[ gburu qchx naeleghara
ihe gbasara [kpx arx anya ma chefuo na enwere ntaramahxhx d[[r[ onye qbxla gburu
qchx. N’ikpeazx, nd[ nchqcha ch[kqtara nchqcha a site n’inye ndxmqdx ka onye qbxla nq ndx
zeere arx maka na arx anagh[ egbu ele anya n’azx. Q bxrx na q malite nyewe nsogbu, tupu e tijxq
ya, o mebiela qtxtx ihe.
Mkpqlite
Nd[ Igbo bx otu n’ime agbxrx atq a maara n’ala Na[jiria. Ha bx nd[ maara onwe ha, nd[ na-agba
mbq na nd[ gbasiriike. A na-ahxta ha na mba d[ iche iche na-asxkwa otu xd[ asxsx nke nd[
Akqkwa so n’otu obodo mejupxtara nd[ Igbo.
Akqkwa so n’obodo nd[ bi n’ala Igbo. Ebe a ga-enweta ha bx n’ime Kansxl Ideatq nke d[ na
steeti Imo. Obodo nd[ gbara ya gburugburu bx Xga, Xmxchu, Osina, Isiokpo, Uzii, Xmxalaqma
na Arqnd[ziqgx. Otu n’ime ihe jikqrq ha qnx bx Omenaala ya mere e ji si n’omenaala bx
21
odibend[, isi a hxrx kwawa okpu ma bxrxkwa isi sepx nti na mba niile nke nd[ Igbo so n’otu
n’ime mba nd[a.
Kalu na Nwosu (1978) kqwara omenaala d[ka otu nd[ si ebi ndx ha. Q gakwara n’ihu si na q bx
ihe akpachapxrx anya hazie, wepxta ma nye kwa qs[sa gbasara xzq obibi ndx nd[ nwe ya (pg.3)
Ekwealor (2010:29) kqwara “omenaala d[ka otu nd[ si ebi ndx ha. Q bx omenaala nd[ a ka e ji
amata ha. Q bx nke a mere na q d[ nnukwu mkpa na nd[ qbxla ga na-echekwa omenaala ha”.
Omego (2007) dere na omenaala d[ka usoro mmadx kwes[r[ isi akpa agwa bx nke a na-amxta site
n’aka nd[ mmadx nq n’obodo ma nyefekwaa ya n’aka nd[ na-ab[a n’ihu (pg.169). Nke a na-egosi
na ihe niile nd[Igbo na-eme site n’omenaala bx ihe bidoro na gboo ma bxrxkwa nke arx so n’otu
n’ime ha, qtxtx nd[ mmadx ekwuola qtxtx ihe banyere arx nke igbu qchx so n’otu n’ime ha. Na
nchqcha a, nd[ nchqcha wepxtara xfqdx ajxjx ederede nke ga-enyere ha aka [ga n’ihu n’ide
ederede a maqbx nweta qs[sa n’aka nd[ a jxrx ajxjx qnx maka ya. Ajxjx nd[ a gunyere:
 Gini bx arx?
 Gini bx qchx?
 Kedx xd[ qchx e nwegas[r[?
 Olee ihe na-akpata igbu qchx?
 Kedx ihe a na-eme onye gburu qchx?
 O nwere qghqm d[ n’igbu qchx?
Site n’ime ihe nhqrq txmbqm txmbqm, nd[ ejiri nweta ajxjx qnx nd[ a gunyere:
 Nd[ nwoke d[ afq iri isii na atq ruo afq iri isii na ise (60-65 yrs)
 Nd[ Nnwaany[ d[ afq iri ise ruo afq iri ise na ise (50-55 yrs)
Ihe Arx Bx
Arx so n’otu n’ime omenaala zuru nd[ Igbo niile qnx, nke ha hxtara d[ka omume ezigh[ ezi
n’ihu mmadx nakwa n’ihu Chukwu. Nke a mere na onye mere arx a, a marala na o merxola ala.
Arx bx agwa nd[ ahx ruru inyi mmadx mere nke onye qbxla nxrx ya na-abxpx asx. Omume qjqq
nd[a ka nd[ Igbo kpqrq arx n’ihi q bx iwu e wepxtara ma kwekqr[ta na onye mere otu n’ime
omume nd[ a emeela arx, nke nwekwara ntaramahxhx onye ahx ga-anata n’atxfugh[ oge.
Ofomata (2004:446) kqwara arx d[ka ihe qjqq mmadx mere megide mmadx ibe ya, ala qzqdoro
qkpa, obodo ya, xwa q nq ya nakwa Chukwu kere ya. Q gakwara n’ihu kwuo na omume qjqq
qbxla a kpqrq arx bx nke nti qbxla Chukwu kere anagh[ achq ka anx. Arx bx agwa qjqq, ndx
qjqq na omume qjqq nd[ Igbo kpqrq as[ ma na-ekpekwa ekpere mgbe qbxla ka q ghara [kpq ha
ihu maqbx b[akwute ha.
Okafo na Ewelukwa (2008:446) hxtara arx d[ka ajq ihe jqgburu onwe ya ma sikar[a nkakwx
n’isi. Onye mere ya, emerxqla ala n’ihi na a na-ewe ala ka arxs[ nke ezi ihe niile si na ya apxta.
Ya kpatara arx ji bxrx ihe ala na-asq nsq. Arx bx ihe nd[ Igbo, ma nwoke ma nwaany[
kwekqr[tara na q bx ajq ihe, ya bx ihe ezigh[ ezi n’anya mmadx ma bxrxkwa ihe megidere ala
na nd[ mmxq.
Orjiako (2014) n’ajxjx qnx a gbara ya kwuru na arx bx omume qjqq mmadx mere nke na-ebute
xzxx n’obodo e merxrx ya. N’ala Igbo, mmadx qbxla mere arx, a na-ajx onye ahx ma jxkwa
mmekq ya. Naan[ ihe a ga-eme iji nabatakwa ya qzq bx ma q kpxrx arx ahx o metara. Ezenwaka
(2014) kwuru na agwa qjqq mmadx mere nke a na-achqgh[ iji nti nx maqbx iji anya hx bx nke a
22
kpqrq arx. Onye qbxla mere arx ga-akwar[r[ ala iji mejxq ala o merxrx. Q bxrx na q kwagh[ ala,
nd[ mmxq nwe ala ga-amalite b[awara ya xgwq site n’ihe ike [dakwas[ onye ahx na ezinaxlq ya.
N’ala Igbo, arx bx arx. O nwegh[ nke bx obere arx maqbx nnukwu arx. Arx niile bx arx, q
bxkwa otu ahx ka nataramahxhx arx s[r[ d[. xfqdx arx e nwere n’ala Igbo bx nd[a: igbu qchx,
nwaany[ idina nwaany[ ibe ya, nwoke idina nwoke ibe ya, nwanne idina nwanne ya nwaany[
maqbx nne ya, nna idina nwa ya nwaany[, [kwx xdq, igbu qchx, ire mmadx, ite ime, ili mmadx
na ndx, [tqgbu mmadx, nwanne [lx nwanne, itipu nwaany[ d[ ime nwa n’afq, mmadx idina
anxmanx dgz. Ihe nd[ a niile bxcha arx mana odee ga-eleba anya n’otu n’ime ha bx qchx.
Ihe Bx Qchx
Q bx ajq ihe mmadx iwepx ndx ya, ndx mmadx ibe ya maqbx kwafuo qbara, n’ihi q bx Chukwu
bx onye na-enye ndx q bx naan[ ya ka q d[ n’aka I were ndx mmadx mgbe o ji chqq ndx onye
ahx. Q d[gh[ mmadx n’aka iwepx ndx onwe ya maqbx mmadx ibe ya na-agbanyegh[ ihe onye
ahx na-agabiga. Onye mere otu a, a na-ahxta ya d[ka onye gburu qchx.
Ubesie (1978:213) kwuru n’obodo xfqdx, o nwere anx xlq xfqdx a na-emeso ka a ga-as[ na q bx
mmadx, n’ihi na q bx arxs[ obodo nwe ha. Onye gbuo mmadx maqbx gbuo anx nd[a, a naakwara
ya qchx.
N’Akqkwa, e nwere qd[naala d[ iche iche d[ka q d[ n’ala Igbo. Qd[naala nd[a ewepxtara naechekwa
ha nke xfqdx n’ime ha bx iwu, onye qbxla dara iwu nd[a nwere ntaramahxhx q gaanata
maka iwu o mebiri. Iwu nd[a d[ nsq mgbe qbxla emebiri iwu nd[ a, ha na-ahxta ya d[ka
onye ahx emeela arx. otu n’ime iwu obodo Akqkwa na-asq bx qchx. Ezeihuaku (2014) n’qnx
mmiri okwu ya mere ka a mata na qchx bx mgbe mmadx [kpachara anya were qnxma gbuo
onwe ya maqbx mmadx ibe ya.
Emeghebo (2014) n’ajxjx qnx agbara ya kwuru na onye qbxla kpachara anya gbuo mmadx
maqbx anx a na-asq nsq d[ka eke arxs[ nwe e egbuola qchx. O kwukwara na onye mere nke a,
ga-akwa ala iji mee ka iwe nd[ mmadx, ndiiche na arxs[ nwe anx dajuq. D[ka nwaafq kpebie
iwepx ndx ya, site n’igbu onwe ya maqbx site n’[kwx xdq , tupu ebupu ozu ya buga ya n’ajq
qh[a onye dib[a ga-eme omenaala iji medaa obi nd[ mmxq nwe ala. Mgbe mmadx gburu qchx q
ga-ebu xzq gbaa qsq qchx. O mee otu afq q gbara qsq qchx, onye ahx ga-alqta mee omenaala bx
[kwa ala. {kwa ala bx mkpocha na nzacha arx mmadx mere. Q ga-eweta ewu, qkxkq, mmanya
na qji iji medaa obi chi nwe ala b[akwa kwxghachi ego niile nd[ nwe onye o gburu jiri kwaa
onye ahx. Ego a ka a na-akpq “xgwq qchx”. Otu aka ahx, onye gburu anx a na-asq nsq d[ka eke,
a na-ahxta onye ahx d[ka onye gburu qchx n’ihi a na-ahxta eke d[ka mmadx. Onye gburu eke
ga-eli eke a d[ka otu esi eli mmadx b[a mee omenaala bx [kwa ala ka obi arxs[ nwe anx a dajxq
Xd[ Qchx D[ Iche Iche
a) Qchx Egbe
Nke a bx qchx a na-egbu mgbe a na-achx nta oge a na-achx nta, dinta nwere ike gbaa anx
egbe n’amagh[ na q bx mmadx ka q gbagburu. A na-akpq xd[ qchx a, qchx egbe. Ya bx xd[
qchx a bx qchx egburu na-akpachagh[ anya were gbuo.
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b) Qchx Mma
Q bx mgbe mmadx kpachara anya miri mma sugbuo onwe ya n’ihi ihe q na-agabiga q naagagh[
edili maqbx miri mma gbuo mmadx ibe ya n’ihi nghqtahie ha nwere.
ch) Qchx Nsi
Nke a bx qchx mmadx gburu site n’itinyere mmadx nsi na nri, idochi nsi n’xzq mmadx
azqrq ya, [kpq aha onye ahx were zipu nsi ahx ka q gaa gbuo onye ahx.
d) Qchx [kwx Xdq
Nke a bx mgbe mmadx ji xdq were kwugbuo onwe ya maka ihe [hxjx anya q na-agabiga
maqbx ihe isi ike q na-enweta n’xwa q na-agagh[ anagide.
e) Qchx Igbu Anx Arx
Mmadx gbuo anx obodo na-asq nsq d[ka eke maqbx anx arxs[ nwe ya bx anx e jiri chxq
aja, a na-ahxta anx a d[ka mmadx. A nagh[ egbu anx nd[ a egbu. Ma mgbe mmadx gburu
anx nd[ a, a na-as[ na onye ahx ebuola qchx.
Ihe Na-Akpata Igbu Qchx
 Qtxtx ihe na-akpata igbu qchx. Isi sekpx nt[ n’igbu qchx bx xjq mgbe xfqdx mmadx naenwe
agxx [kwx xdq d[ka mgbe mmadx na-ar[a qr[a o nwegh[ olile anya na q ga-agbake
xd[ onye a, n’ihi xjq d[ ya n’ahx maka qr[a q na-ar[a, na-achq xzq q ga-esi ewepx ndx ya
ka xfx q na-eri site n’qr[a q na-ar[a b[a na njedebe.
 Qzq bx mmadx ime ihe n’amagh[ ama. Mgbe mmadx txmadx xmx agbqghqb[a danyere
n’qnqdx na-ebute ihe ihere d[ka [txrx ime qkwa, ibute qr[a obirinajaqcha, xd[ qnqdx a naakpata
mmadx iwere ihere gbuo qchx.
 Ihe qzq na-ebute igbu qchx bx ike xwa [gwx mmadx. Mgbe mmadx nq n’ahxhx n’enwegh[
olile anya na q ga-esi n’ahxhx ahx aputa, mgbe ihe xwa a anagh[ enye mmadx obiqma,
mgbe ike xwa gwxrx mmadx, enwegh[ ego, nwere ike ibutere mmadx igbu qchx.
 Qzqkwa bx ihe ike [dakwas[ mmadx. Mgbe ihe ike dakwas[r[ mmadx d[ka [kwas[ mmadx
iko n’ike maqbx agha daa kpochapx ezinaxlq mmadx, onye nke d[ ndx hxrx qnwx nd[ nke
ya, ihe nd[ a nwere ike ime mmadx igbu qchx.
 Iwe nwekwara ike ime mmadx igbu qchx ya bx onye na-ewebiga iwe oke, q nagh[ ara ya
ahx igbu qchx.
 Onye anya ukwu, onye oke qchichq nwere ike igbu qchx mgbe q na-enwetagh[ ihe q
chqrq. Xd[ ndx a na-akpata igbu qchx.
Ihe a Na-eme Onye Gburu Qchx
Emeghebo (2014) kwuru na onye gburu qchx na-amagh[ ama, ihe a na-eme xd[ onye a bx q gaagba
qsq qchx gbaga n’obodo qzq. Q gagh[ akpq nd[ be ya apx, q ga-apx naan[ ya nqq n’obodo
qzq otu afq ka ala jxq oyi. Ihe q ga-eji gbapx n’obodo ahx o gburu qchx bx ka nd[ o gburu onye
ha ghara igbu ya, n’ihi q nqrq n’obodo ha a n’ahx ya, o nwere ike ibute nsogbu d[ka igbu onye
ahx. Q nqchaa otu afq e nyere, ya lqta. Q ga-akwa ala ihe nd[ e ji akwa ala bx qkxkq qcha, ewu,
ngwere, mbe, akwa qcha, nzu, mmanya, qji, akwa qkxkq. Onye isiala obodo ahx ga-e nyere ya
aka kwara ya ala.
Q bxrx na onye gburu qchx kpqchie nt[ lqghachi mgbe afq e nyere ya ezubegh[, onye ahx gaagba
ara ozugbo q zqkwasiri qkpa n’obodo o gburu qchx. Onye kpachara anya gbuo qchx, tupu e
lie onye ahx o gburu, onye gburu qchx na onye e gburu ga-arahx abal[ abxq n’otu qnx xlq tupu e
lie onye ahx. Mgbe e lichara onye e gburu, a ga-eduru onye gburu qchx gaa ka q kwaa ala. Nd[
Akqkwa na-akpq xd[ [kwa ala a bx [wa aka.
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Orjiakq (2014) kwuru na [wa aka bx omenaala onye gburu qchx na-eme iji mee ka iwe nd[
mmadx, ndiichie, ala na agabara nwe ala dajxq. Oge eji eme ya bx mgbe onye gburu qchx
gbachara qsq qchx, q na-abxkar[ n’oge abal[ mgbe agbara nwe ala na ndiichie ga-anara aja a gaachxrx
ha. Onye ga-awara onye gburu qchx aka bx onyeisi ala obodo. Q ga-enye aka kpqkuo
ndiichie na agbara nwe obodo ka ha gbaghara onye gburu qchx, ihe nd[ e ji ga-eme ya bx qkxkq
qcha, ebula, nwas[[s[[, xmxahxhx d[ iche iche d[ka: ijiji, nte, akwa qcha, nzu, qmx nkwx na abq a
ga-eji akwakq ihe nd[ a q ga e ji achx aja. Onyeisi ala ga-egbu ebula fee onye gburu qchx n’isi
ugboro ise ma gbuo ebula a were qbara ya saa onye gburu qchx ahx iji sachapx ya njq qchx o
gburu ma txpxrx agbara nwe ala ebula ahx. Mgbe e mechara nke a, a na-ahxta onye gburu qchx
d[ka onye nwerela onwe ya. Q bxrx onye gburu qchx ghara [wa aka, q ga-e gburu na aga.
Q bxrx onye kwxrx xdq, e nwere qtxtx ihe a na-eme ya. Nd[ okenye nq n’obodo ga-eme
omenaala tupu a totuo ozu onye kwxrx xdq iji mee ka qh[a a nqrq kwxq xdq dere jxx Onyeisi ala
na-eme omenaala a ma totuo ozu onye kwxrx xdq. Xmxokorob[a nq n’obodo ga-egbutu osisi ahx
a nqrq kwxq xdq ka onye qzq ghara [ga n’osisi ahx kwxq xdq qzq. A nagh[ eli ozu onye kwxrx
xdq d[ka ozu onye nwxqrq onwe ya, a na-egwu ili ya d[ka olulu. A nagh[kwa eyinye ozu onye
kwxrx xdq akwa, a na-agbawa ya qtq. A nagh[ eji igbe ozu were eli ya, a na-atxnye ya n’ime
olulu ahx otu ahx. Q bxkwa n’oke qh[a maqbx n’qh[a agbara ka ga-eli ya n’ihi q bx gbara nwe
ozu ahx.
Qghqm D[ N’Igbu Qchx
 Igbu qchx na-ebute akqmqnx na ndx onye metara ya na kwa ndx ezinaxlq ya. Xd[r[
qnqdx a na-ebute ajq aha na-eme ka onye ahx n’ezinaxlq ya nqdx na nwute oge niile ma
mekwaa ka ha ghara inwe qnx n’obodo.
 A na-ajx onye qbxla gburu qchx ajx. Nd[ obodo na-ahxta ya d[ka onye megidere ha,
megide obodo ma megidekwa Chukwu kere ya.
 Q na-anabiga xmxagbqghq topxtara n’ezinaxlq ahx [ga d[, na-esikwara xmxnwoke toruru
[lx nwaany[ ike [lx nwaany[ ha chqrq.
 Q na-esikwara onye gburu qchx ike ya na nd[ obodo ya [d[ na-emekqr[ta tutu ruo mgbe q
kwara ala.
 Ihe qghqm qzq igbu qchx na-ebute bx ihe ihere. Onye gburu qchx na nd[ nwe onye ahx
na-abx nd[ ihere na-ejide mgbe niile.
 Onye gburu qchx na-anq na nwute oge niile. Obi a nagh[ eru ya ala. Obi ya anagh[ ezu
ike n’ihi ihe o metara na-esoghar[ ya.
 Onye gburu qchx a nagh[zi enwe ugwu na nsqpxrx. Onye qbxla nwere ike [gwa ya okwu
otu q mas[r[ ha.
 Onye gburu qchx na akwagh[ ala nwxq, ozu ya ga-abxkwa ihe a ga-eji mee ihe qch[.
 A na-eze onye gburu qchx eze d[ka onye qr[a qcha.
 Qnqdx ya na-abx qd[ ndx qnwx ka mma
 Onye ahx na-anata ntaramahxhx.
Ihe Nd[ A Chqpxtagas[r[ Site Na Nchqcha a
Site na nchqcha e mere nke nchqpxta ya bx nke usoro akxkqala nke sitere n’ajxjx qnx a gbara nd[
okenye Akqkwa. A chqpxtara na qchx bx omume qjqq mmadx mere nke nt[ qbxla nxrx ya ga-asx
wuru wuru. A gakwara n’ihu chqpxta na e nwere xd[ qchx d[ iche iche n’ala Akqkwa. Ha bx
qchx egbe, qchx mma, qchx nsi, [kwx xdq na qchx anx arx. Ha mekwara ka any[ mara na e
nwere ihe nd[ na-akpata igbu qchx, ya bx a nagh[ anqkata gbuo qchx, a na-enwe ihe na-akpata ya
d[ka xjq, ihere, ike xwa [gwx mmadx, oke qch[chq enwegh[ ego, iwe aguu dgz. A chqpxtakwara
25
na onye gburu qchx nwere ihe q ga-eme, a nagh[ a hapx onye gburu qchx, q ga-akwar[r[ ala nke a
kpqrq iwa aka nke onyeisi ala ga-enyere ya aka mee ka ala o metoro jxq oyi ma o megh[ otu a,
ihe ike ga-adakwas[ onye ahx n’otu ntabi anya.
Ndxmqdx
(1) N’agbanyegh[ ihe nh[aahx niile mmadx na-agabiga, any[ ga-agbalisi ike nagide qnqdx
qbxla any[ hxtara onwe any[
(2) Mmadx ekwela ka echiche qjqq bata ya n’obi
(3) Ijisike gbanahu oke iwe na qnxma
(4) Iwezuga anya ukwu, igbu ogbu na iji obi akpq as[
(5) Izere qgbakq nd[ na ejigh[ ndx mmadx kpqrq ihe
(6) Ijisike na-akqrq nd[ qkachaamara n’[dx qdx na nd[ ndu ekpemekpe xka mkpa g[ na inata
ndxmqdx n’aka ha. Elegh[ anya ha egbola xd[r[ nsogbu a, nke a ga-enye aka igbo ya
qsisq.
(6) Mmadx ejila ihe nke xwa gbuo onwe ya n’ihi na mmiri zochaa anwu ga-awar[r[. Otu
qbxla qch[ch[r[ siri gbaa xtxtx ga-ab[akwa, ya mere onye egbula qchx maqbx gbuo onwe
ya n’ihi ihe nke xwa.
(7) O kwes[r[ ka mmadx gba mbq hx na o nwere ihe q na-eme ghara [ nq nkiti ka Ekwesu
ghara itinye echiche qjqq n’obi ya.
(8) N’ime ihe niile mmadx kwes[r[ [tukwas[ Chukwu obi.
Nch[kqta
Arx bx ihe jqgburu onwe ya nke onye nxrx ya na-eti mkpu. Q bx ihe Chukwu, mmadx, ndiichie
na nd[ mmxq nwe obodo achqgh[ iji nt[ nx. Q bx nnukwu njq nke na-ebutere onye mere ya na
ezinaxlq ya ihe ihere na akpqmas[. Ya bx onye qbxla kpqrq onwe ya nwafq Igbo kwes[r[ izere. O
nwegh[kwanx arx nke qbxla bx nke obere. Ha niile bx nnukwu arx, q bxkwa otu ahx ka
ntaramahxhx ha sikwa d[. Ya mere d[ka qchx si soro n’otu n’ime arx e nwere, q ga-ad[kwa mma
ka onye qbxla zere ya n’agbanyegh[ qnqdx maqbx nsogbu qbxla mmadx hxtara onwe ya, onye
ahx gbaa mbq hx na o jikqtara onwe ya.
Onye qbxla gburu qchx ebutela ajq aha n’ezinaxlq ya, nd[ mmadx ga na-asq ha asq. Q ga-ara ha
ahx ha na nd[ obodo inwe mmekqr[ta, xmx agbqghq topxtara n’ezinaxlq ahx, [ga di ga-esiri ha
ike, na-esikwara xmx nwoke nd[ toruru [lx nwaany[ ike [lxta nwaany[ ha chqrq. Ya bx o nwegh[
uru a na-enweta n’igbu qchx, q bx qghqm bx ihe juru na ya. Q ka mma mmadx [nq ndx sowe ihe
b[ara ya ije kar[a iji xjq wepx ndx ya maqbx nke mmadx ibe ya mgbe qnwx ya na-erubegh[.
26
Edensib[a
Ekwealor, C.C (2010) Omenaala na Ewumewu nd[ Igbo.Onitsha:Africana First Publishers Plc.
Emeghebo Chima gbara afq iri isii na ise, onye na-azx ah[a, onye Xmxijemba Xmxkagwx
Akqkwa, ajxjx qnx a gbara na August 14, 2014.
Ezeihuaku Onyeka gbara afq iri isii, onye qrx ugbo n’Ogboo Akwu Akqkwa, ajxjx qnx a gbara
na September 2, 2014.
Ezenwaka Regina gbara afq iri ise na ise, onye qrx ugbo onye Amqj[ Xmxkegwu Akqkwa, ajxjx
qnx a gbara na July 23, 2014.
Kalu, O. na Nwosu, H. (1978). The study of African Culture in African Cultural Development.
Enugu: Fourth Dimension Publishers.
Ofomata, C. E (2004). Ndezu Xtqasxsx Igbo. Enugu: Format Publishers.
Okafo, C.U na Ewlukwa, U. (2008). Nhasi Asxsx Igbo Maka Ule Sin[q Sekqnd[r[ na Koleji,
WASSCE, NECO, GCE na JAMB. Onitsha: A.C. Global Publishing Co (Nig).
Omego, C. (2007). “A Survey of Language use and Culture Vol. 9. P. 168.
Orjiakq Georgina gbara afq iri ise, onye nkuzi onye Awoke Akwx Akqkwa, ajxjx qnx a gbara na
July, 23, 2014.
Ubesie, T. (1978). Qd[naala Nd[ Igbo. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
27
NTUTEGHAR{ OMENAALA IGBO ND{ NA-ANWX ANWX SITE N’AGXMAGX
QD{NAALA ND{ IGBO
NKE SI N’AKA
Benedict Nkemdirim Igbokwe (Ph.D)
Directorate of General Studies
Federal University of Technology
Owerri
uwa9@yahoo.com
NA
Ezeji Judith Chinuruekperem (DCPB)
Daughters Of Charity Of The Most Precious Blood
Owerri
ezejichinuruekperem@gmail.com
Xmiedemede
Qtxtx mgbe ka a na-akpq oku ka nd[ Igbo jiri omenaala ha kpqrq ezi mkpa n’ihi na obodo naenwegh[
omenaala nwxrx anwx. Nd[ na-atx aro n’xzq nd[ e nwere ike isi chekwaa ma q bx
kwalite omenaala Igbo na-ebowekar[ anya ha n’elu n’ahxtagh[ agxmagx qd[naala d[ka xzq kacha
mfe iji tuteghar[a ma kwalitekwa omenaala Igbo nd[ a na-anwx anwx. Edemede a na-echeta na
ebe q bx na agxmagx bx qrx nka nke e ji akqwapxta usoro na qnqdx obibi ndx nke nd[ nwe ya, q
bxzi agxmagx qd[naala ga-abx o jechaa q gwx n’ituteghar[ omenaala nd[ ahx na-agba qnyxpaa.
Edemede a nyere nkqwa banyere omenaala, omenaala Igbo nd[ na-achq inwx anwx, nkqwa
agxmagx, uru agxmagx bara n’ituteghar[ omenaala Igbo. Uru akxkq ifo na ndx nd[ Igbo na ihe
nd[ a ga-eme iji chekwaa ma kwalitekwa agxmagx qnx.
Okwu Nd[ Gbara Qkpxrxkpx:
Omenaala, Asxsx Igbo, Agxmagx qnx, Akxkq Ifo. Nd[ Igbo.
Nkqwa
Omenaala bx usoro obibi ndx nke mba d[ iche iche. Q bx usoro mba kwekqr[tara ma nabatakwa
iji na-eme ihe banyere ha. Omenaala gxnyere xdi erimeri mba na-eri, ejiji ha, asxsx ha, usoro
olili qzx, alxmalx, agxmagx dgz. Omenaala bx ejirimara mba, n’ihi ya, mba niile nwere usoro
omenaala ha n’ihi na qkwa mba na-ach[ n’olu n’olu, nkx d[ na mba na-eghere mba nri.
Abakere, (2009:5) kwuru s[,
Culture is the way of life the shored, learned behavior of a people. It includes
everything we think, do and have as members of society. Therefore, it includes
the idea, value beliefs, literature, religion and philosophy of the people. It also
includes the rules by which those people guide their behavior and material objects
that are found among them. This means that culture refers to man’s entire social
heritage, all the knowledge, beliefs, customs and skills he acquired as a member
of society. Ihe nke a pxtara bx:
28
Omenaala bx usoro obibi ndx omume na akparamaagwa nke zuru nd[ mmadx
qnx. Q gxnyere ihe niile any[ na-eche, ihe any[ na-eme na ihe any[ nwere d[ka nd[
bi n’obodo. N’ihi ya q gxnyere atxmatx uche, nkwenye, agxmagx okpukperechi
na ekere uche nke nd[ mmadx. Q gxnyekwara usoro iwu nke e ji echekwa
akparamaagwa nd[ mmadx na ngwongwo nd[ a na-enweta gburugburu ha. Ihe q
pxtara bx na omenaala metxtara ihe nketa niile nke mmadx, mmxta niile,
nkwenye, qd[bend[ na aka qrx ya d[ka otu n’ime nd[ bi n’obodo.
Nd[ Igbo nwere qtxtx omenaala, bxkwa ihe na-abara ha qtxtx uru na ndx ha, mana q d[ mwute na
xfqdx omenaala nd[ a na-anwxzi anwx ugbu a n’ihi ejigh[ ihe kpqrq ihe, nleda, aghqtagh[ aghqta,
okpukperechi qlqrqqhxrx nakwa oke nhiwe isi na ndabere n’omenaala nd[ mba ofesi.
Xfqdx Omenaala Igbo Nd[ na-ala Azx
Asxsx Igbo:
Asxsx na omenaala bx e jewe a ghagh[. Nd[ Igbo ji asxsx ha akpar[taxka, jirikwa ya naakqwapxta
ma na-echekwa omenaala ha na agwa nd[ a txrx anya nd[ Igbo ga na-akpa.
Chinagorom, (2013:9) kqwara asxsx d[ka:
Ihe d[ mkpa mmadx ji enwe mmekqr[ta nke na-esite n’xda mmadx nd[ bi na
mpaghara ebe a na-asx asxsx. N’anya okaasxsx bx Lingwistiks, asxsx q bxla
kwes[r[ inwe usoro mkpqpxta ya, mkpxrxokwu ya, usoro e si edepxta
mkpxrxokwu ya, nkebiokwu ya, nkebiah[r[okwu ya, ah[r[okwu ya na nghqtaokwu
maqbx mpxtara si n’ime ha na-apxta na xd[ mmas[ na nkwekqr[ta nd[ nwe asxsx
ahx.
Ka q d[ ugbu a e nwetela qtxtx mkpesa nakwa qtxtx ihe nd[ anya na-ahx nke na-egosi na asxsx
Igbo, nke bxkwa otu n’ime omenaala nd[ kacha mkpa na ndx nd[ Igbo, na-agbazi qnyxpaa ugbu
a.
Ejiofor, (2009:10) jxrx ajxjx si,
O nwere onye ejigh[ anya ya hx, na asxsx Igbo ji nwayq nwayq na-anwx? { nagh[
ahx na onye Igbo na-ekwu okwu n’asxsx Igbo ugbu a, na okwu bekee na-akari
okwu Igbo?. { gagh[ ama maqbx bekee ka a na-asx maqbx Igbo. { nagh[ ahx na
nd[ Igbo abxq maara akwxkwq, q bxrxgodu sqqsq akwxkwq qtaakara ka ha gara,
na ha na-akpar[ta xka ugbu a, na q bx bekee ka qtxtx n’ime ha na-asx…
Qnqdx d[ otu a bx ihe iyi egwu nye omenaala Igbo nke ihe nd[ kpatara ya gxnyere:
· Aghqtagh[ aghqta nke nd[ nne na nna n’ime ezinaxlq ha d[ iche iche.
· Nd[ nkuzi na itinye iwu onye asxla asxsx Igbo n’xlq akwxkwq.
· Xmxafq Igbo nd[ q na-eme ihere [sx asxsx ha
· Enyegh[ nd[ na-agx asxsx Igbo n’xlq akwxkwq nd[ d[ elu nkwado, d[ka e si enye nd[
ogbo ha nd[ na-agx ihe qmxmx nd[ qzq nakwa –
· Mmadx ejigh[ ihe ya kpqrq ezi ihe.
Q d[ mkpa ka nd[ Igbo na-echeta oge niile na asxsx bx ejirimara mba. Mba q bxla asxsx ha furu
e fuola. Nd[ na-amagh[ kwes[r[ ka ha mata na nwata Igbo q bxla buru xzq mxta asxsx Igbo nke
qma na-eme qfxma n’ihe qmxmx nd[ qzq, q bxlad[ n’asxsx bekee.
29
Ekele, Ugwu na Nsopxrx n’ala Igbo.
Ekele na nsopxrx sokwa n’omenaala Igbo nd[ na-anwx anwx taa. Nd[ Igbo na-atx ilu si, “ekwe
ekele, ihu asaa”. Uzochukwu na Udoka, (2012:359), “Kqwara ekele d[ka ihe e jiri mara nd[ Igbo.
Q bx omenaala zuru nd[ Igbo niile qnx… Ekele na-egosi ihu qma mmadx nwere n’ebe ibe ya nq.
Q na-egosi nsqpxrx mmadx nwere ma na-egosikwa obi qcha”.
`N’ala Igbo, nwata q bxla gafere okenye n’xzq n’ekelegh[ ya na-egosipxta onwe ya d[ka nwa a
na-azxgh[ azx. N’aka nke qzq onye q bxla e kwere ekele, ya ajx ikwe, na-egosi qha na obi ad[gh[
ya mma.
Osuagwu, (1971:48) kwadoro nke a wee s[,
Nd[ Igbo bx nd[ nwere obiqma n’ebe mmadx ibe ha nq. Ha na-egosi nke a site
n’ikele ha ekele. Ekele bx otu n’ime xzq ha ji egosi ihu qcha, mmas[ na [nabata
mmadx. Q bxrx na mmadx efee maqbx wqq ibe ya ekele, q na-egosi na o nwere
ihe qbx n’obi n’ebe onye nke qzq d[. Nke a pxtara na ha na-ejikwa ya amata onye
ya na mmadx nq n’iro site n’ekwekqr[tagh[ ekele.
Nd[ Igbo nwere xdi ekele d[ iche iche, nd[ gxnyere, – ekele xtxtx, ekele anyas[, ekele onye na-aga
njem, ekele onye na-arx qrx, ekele onye meere mmadx ihe qma, ekele onye na-eru uju dgz.
Ihe nd[ a bxcha xzq nd[ Igbo si egosipxta ezi mmekqr[ta na nsqpxrx.
Ekele na-ewetara onye na-ekele ya qtxtx ihe qma, ma na-egbochikwara ya ihe qjqq d[ iche iche.
Q d[z[ mwute na xfqdx xmxafq Igbo, q kachakwa nd[ na-eto eto amagh[ mkpa q d[ bx ikwe ekele
d[ka o kwes[r[.
A b[azie n’ihe banyere nsqpxrx, nd[ Igbo kwenyere na ugwu bx nkwanye nkwanye nwaany[ jiri
mxta ibe ya. Qzqkwa, onye sopxrx okenye, okenye agozie ya ihe qma eru ya aka. Nd[ Igbo
nwere xzq d[ iche iche ha ji enye nsqpxrx, nke xfqdx ha gxnyere:
· Nwata anagh[ agq okenye mmxq, maqbx s[ ya mechie qnx
· Nwata na-elitere okenye n’oche, okenye ekelee ya
· Nwata anagh[ ebu okenye xzq ebu oke.
· A na-asqpxrx okenye site n’inye ya mkpxrx mbx sitere n’ihe nd[ a kxrx d[ka
qji na mkpxrx osisi nd[ qzq.
· A na-ewepxrx okenye akxkx xfqdx nke anx nd[ e gburu n’xlq d[ka obi anx,
eke qkxkq dgz.
Edemede a na-arxtx aka na q bxgh[ naan[ nwata na-asqpxrx okenye. Okenye na-asqpxrxkwara
nwata site n’ibu xzq sqpxrx onwe ya. Mana, ole n’ime ihe nd[ a e depxtara ka a na-emezu taa?
Ihe a na-ahxta bx na nwata amagh[ okenye, okenye amagh[kwa onwe ya, ihe aghasazie!.
Osuagwu, (197-153), hxtara qnqdx a wee kwuo s[,
Qnqdx nd[ Igbo nyere ekele na nsqpxrx na ndx ha eriela mpe n’oge ugbu a: {wa
anya oge ugbu a e meela nd[ mmadx anagh[ ekelecha ibe ha otu o kwes[r[. Q naany[
z[ nd[ mmadx q bxlad[ xmxaka arx n’qnx ikele okenye ha. Nke a jqrq njq, nd[
Igbo ahapxla iji okwu ha ekele ekele kama ha na-ejizi okwu bekee… Xmx
nwaany[ ugbu a anagh[ ekwekwa ikwanyere d[ ha ugwu mgbe ha na-a]x mmanya.
Nke ka d[ njq bx na qtxtx n’ime ha na-ejizi aka ekpe a]x mmanya. Ha ga-ejisie
ike dote ugwu na nsqpxrx a.
30
Q d[ ezigbo mkpa na a ga-akwanyere onye q bxla ugwu ruuru ya. Nwata na-asqpxrx okenye naenweta
ngozi ebe nwata na-akpar[ okenye na-enwetakar[ abxmqqnx. N’ezie edemede a agagh[
enwe ike lebachaa anya n’omenaala Igbo niile nd[ ahx na-anwx anwx, d[ka iru mgbede, [wa
akwa, usoro alxmdi na nwunye nd[ Igbo, malite n’ajxjx, [kx aka n’xzq, ibuzu mmanya na [kwx
akx isi nwaany[. Usoro nnabata qb[a na [gq qj[ na-alazi azx n’ala Igbo, [gba odibo na [mxta aka
qrx bxzi onye mere ihe d[ ya mma. {d[ qcha na mbqmxzq bxz[ ihe akxkq, q bxlad[ usoro
agxmagx qd[naala nd[ Igbo socha n’omenaala nd[ na-achq [la ka na[.
Ajxjx wee na-ajx s[, kedxzie otu a ga-esi kwqrq onye ukwu wara, g[n[ ka a ga-eme ka Nwugo
biri? Qs[sa ajxjx a wee na-atx aka n’ebe agxmagx qd[naala d[, d[ka xzq a ga-esi txteghar[a
omenaala Igbo nd[ a na-achq inwx anwx.
Nkqwa Agxmagx
Agxmagx bx qrx nka nke sitere n’echiche pxta ma bxrx nke e si na ya egosipxta ma na-ahx ndx.
Agxmagx bx enyo e ji ahx ihe na-eme n’xwa, nakwa xzq e si egosipxta echiche gbasara qnqdx
ihe n’xwa taa “ihe agxmagx na-arxtx aka gbasara omume mmadx, qch[ch[, ekere, qnqdx dgz.
Chinagorom, (2013:7) hxtara agxmagx d[ka “iji asxsx d[ mma d[kwa qgq wepxta ihe q bxla e
dere ede maqbx nke e kwuru ekwu”. Xzqchukwu, (2004:4) kqwakwara agxmagx d[ka, “iji asxsx
wepxta nkamma bx ihe d[kas[r[ iche n’agxmagx na ihe qmxmx nd[ qzq”.
Agxmagx bx ihe niile e derede maqbx a kqrq akq nke na-akpalite mmxq nd[ mmadx. N’echiche
nke ha, Okafq na Ewelukwa, (2012:303) kqwara agxmagx d[ka:
Echiche miri emi nke mmadx chere gbasara isiokwu q bxla, nke e jiri asxsx nka
kqwapxta q bx ihe niile e dere ede maqbx ihe niile a kqrq n’qnx n’ime otu obodo
maqbx n’otu oge. Agxmagx bx akxkq, abx maqbx ejije nke na-enye mmadx obi
a]xr[, afq ojuju, amamiihe na ezi echiche. Q bx ihe odide niile nke e chere bara
uru site n’okpx, ruo n’okpx, b[a d[ ezi mma, na-akpalite mmxq nd[ mmadx.
E kere agxmagx xzq abxq, nd[ gxnyere agxmagx qd[naala na agxmagx ugbu a, mana edemede a
gbadoro xkwx n’agxmagx qd[naala.
Agxmagx qd[naala maqbx agxmagx qnx malitere mgbe Igbo malitere ndx ha q bx qnx ka e ji agx
ya, e degh[ ya ede ihe mebere ya na-abxkar[ akxkq qd[naala nke sitere mgbe gboo. E kere
agxmagx qd[naala xzq atq, nd[ gxnyere akxkq, ejije na abx.
Akxkq qd[naala gxnyere akxkq ifo, akxkq nd[ichie, akxkq neegwu, akxkq okike, akxkq dike,
xkabxilu, nkqniilu, akxkq xmx anxmanx, akxkq idxx dgz. Ejije qd[naala gxnyere ejije mmqnwx,
egwu qnwa, mgba, ejije agha ejije xmxaka na ejije ntqaja ma q bx ejije ofufe.
Abx qd[naala gxnyere, uri/egwu, abx ifo, abx nwa, abx mkpoku, abx otito, abx nkqcha, abx
ngugo, abx agha, abx qrx, abx akwamozu, abx akwa ar[r[, abx okwu [hxnanya dgz. Agxmagx
qd[naala nd[ Igbo gxnyekwara ilu, agwxgwa na okwuntxhi/okwuntabiire.
Uru Agxmagx Bara N’Ituteghar[ Omenaala Igbo
Agxmagx na-abara nd[ Igbo qtxtx uru nd[ gxnyere:
· A na-eji agxmagx anqr[ oge na-ekpor[kwa mgbe maka na q na-akpa obiqma
31
· A na-eji agxmagx agwq qr[a, onye na-ekiri maqbx na-ege agxmagx nwere
ike chefutx mkpagbu ya, zere qr[a qbara mgbalielu ma nwekwa ogologo ndx
· Agxmagx na-agba ihe qjqq qtq ma meekwa ka a sqrq ya.
· A na-esite n’agxmagx agbasa qzi
· Site n’agxmagx a na-amxta xtqasxsx mxta mkpxrxokwu mba d[ iche iche,
imepxta ah[r[okwu d[ xtq, [tx ilu na ihe nd[ qzq.
· A na-eji agxmagx akxzi ihe n’xzq d[ iche, chekwaa omenaala na asxsx na
nkwenye nd[ Igbo.
O bx n’uru nke isii a ka edemede a gbadoro xkwx, iji zipxta xzq e nwere ike isi were agxmagx
qd[naala txteghar[a omenaala Igbo nd[ na-anwx anwx .
Okafo na Ewelukwa, (2012:304) kwuru s[,
Agxmagx na-enyere any[ aka site n’iji ya wee kuzie qtxtx ihe d[ mkpa na ndx
mmadx. Qtxtx akxkq egwuregwu na abx na-akxziri any[ ihe omimi d[ iche iche.
Agxmagx na-akxziri any[ ihe d[ mma na ihe nd[ d[ njq ma meekwa ka any[ kpaa
oke n’ihe qjqq d[ iche iche ma nabatakwa ihe qma na ndx any[. Agxmagx naenyere
any[ aka [mata omenaala d[ iche iche…. Site na ya ka [ ga-amxta ihe nd[
obodo na-asq nsq na nke ha na-anabata d[ka ezi ihe.
Iji agxmagx qd[naala atxteghar[ omenaala Igbo ga-aka ad[ ire site n’akxkq ifo. Nd[ Igbo nwere
qtxtx akxkq ifo. Ha na-eji ya akxzi ezi agwa, na-eme ihe qchi, na-agba omume qjqq nd[ mmadx
n’anwx ma na-etokwa nd[ o kwes[r[ ka e too.
Xfqdx akxkq ifo gbadokwara xkwx n’ime nd[ mmadx obixtq site n’egwu, ebe nd[ nke qzq naegosipxta
nkwenye nd[ Igbo banyere ekere na q natarachi nd[ xfqdx d[ka – ihe mere azx mmadx
jiri kqq qbx, ihe mere egbe ji eburu qkxkq, ihe mere ngwere ji ekwe n’isi dgz.
E nwekwara akxkq nd[ na-akxzi ezi agwa nd[ na-akatq anya ukwu na oke ejije, nd[ na-atq qch[
ma na-egosipxta oke akq na uche. E nwekwara akxkq ifo nd[ e ji agx egwu ma na-emekwa
mmadx obixtq. (Okonkwo, 1976:110)
Ka any[ lebazie anya n’akxkq ifo nd[ a iji gosipxta uru ha bara na ntuteghar[ omenaala Igbo.
Isiokwu akxkq ifo a bx qj[ bx isi omume.
Qy[ haa ! Ifo gbasa m, gbasa m gbasa onye agbata obi m!
Q d[ otu nwoke aha ya bx Nze; o nwere qtxtx nd[inyom na xmxaka, okorob[a, na
xmx agbqghqb[a. Ebelebe gburu maka ji d[ n’qba ya; ewu na ehi o nwere bx
agxta agxta; qkxkq d[ n’ezi na xlq ya d[ ka aja d[ n’ala. Q bx nnqq qgaranya
txkwas[ qgaranya, obi qma ya enwegh[ atx, q hxrx onye q bxla n’anya d[ ka onye
q bxla hxrx ya txmadx nd[ ogbenye. Ma otu ihe mere bx na q bx ngwxrq.
D[ ka omenaala ha si d[, o rue oge qlx, ezi na xlq q bxla na-akwara ihe ha dum
gaa biri n’ubi ha rue mgbe qlx gwxchara, mgbe ahx ha akwarakwa ihe ha
laghachi azx. Otu a ka q d[r[ ha n’oge a. Mmadx niile ma xmx ntak[r[ ma nd[
okenye gachara qlx, q fqdx naan[ Nze onye xkwx na-ad[gh[ na otu nwa ya
nwaany[ q hxrx n’anya onye na-ele ya anya, aha ya bx Nwanyqma. A kpqrq ya
onye qma, ya abxrx onye qma n’ezie; ihe qma nwoke a na-eme agazuela ebe
dum q bxlad[ nd[ mmqq matara ya n’ihi nke a. Ha achqq [kwxghachi ya xgwq na
inyere ya aka n’qr[a ya.
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O rue otu xbqch[, nna m nze d[ka nd[ ya si akpq ya nq n’obi ya. Nwa ya na-aga ozi n’ime xlq,
anwx na-amxs[kwa ike, ma lee, na mberede q hx nd[ikom isii ka ha na-abata n’obi ya. O nwegh[
onye q bxla n’ime ha q ma. Nke kacha nke bx na q d[gh[ onye n’ime ha kwuru okwu. O kelee ha,
‘Ndewonx’; q bxlad[ otu n’ime ha atxpxgh[[r[ ya qnx. O kelee ha ihe d[ka ugboro atq, ma ha
emegh[ nt[ ka ha nxrx ihe q na-ekwu. Q kpqq nwa ya ka o butere ha oche; ha agaa nqdx n’olu d[
otu a:
Nwanyqma nwa m nqqq …… Nwanyqma pokolim
Nwanyqma nwa m nqqq …… Nwanyqma pokolim
Baa n’[bar[ nna g[ Nze …… Nwanyqma pokolim
Bute oche nd[ ahx d[ ya nqqq…. Nwanyqma pokolim
Ka any[ nye qha b[ara ije eee… Nwanyqma pokolim
Lee ma ha ga-enye m nxqq….. Nwanyqma pokolim
Qha ndewonxoo …………….. Nwanyqma pokolim
Ndewqnxoo, mma mmanxoo… Nwanyqma pokolim
O butere ha oche, ha dum anqdxchaa ala ma okwu ha ekwugh[. O bido jxba ha ajxjx ma q d[gh[
qnx q bxla ha txpxrx ya. Ihe a eju ya anya kar[a, egwu ebido txba ya, q kpqq nwa ya n’olu d[ ka
nke mbx. O zie ya ka o kpokqta akwa qkxkx sie ha, ka e nye qha b[ara ije. Nwaagbqghq ahx
emee d[ ka a gwara ya; ha erichaa, a na-ele ha ka ha kwue okwu, ma nke a enwegh[ isi. Nna m
Nze amara m ihe a esila ike, q kpqq ya ka o gbue otu n’ime oke qkxkx nd[ gbara abxba. Mgbe o
gbuchara sie, ha erichapx ihe dum, qch[ ha ach[gh[. Otu a ka ha gbugidere ihe niile o nwere ma
ewu, na ehi, ma atxrx, ma ji gbara abxba ma ede ma ihe niile qzq o nwere ike inye ha. Ha richara
ihe nd[ a ma nke bx [kqwa onwe ha ma q bx inye ekele ma q bx ikwu ihe ha b[ara, ha emegh[ nke
a.
Q na-eche ihe qzq q ga-eme, q hxgh[; q na-echekwanx ka ha laba alaba, ha achqgh[kwanx [la.
N’ikpeazx ya echeta na q d[ otu ihe q na-enyebegh[ ha, ya bx qj[. Q kpqq nwa ya. Ozigbo q naewetala
akpa nna ya, qnx qch[ awaa ha n’qnx; mgbe q na-enyela qj[, ha niile ekele ya, “mma
mma nna any[ Nze, mma mma, nna any[ Nze”. Ha ebido kqchaara ya ihe kpatara qb[b[a ha na q
bx naan[ inyere ya aka. “Mgbe q nq na-eche xd[ inye aka q ga-abx, ha dum ebilie qtq. Xfqdx
ejide ya n’xkwx emetx x]ara; akwara xkwx ya dum agbat[chaa. Ha edote ya, gwa ya ka q gaa ije.
Q gaghar[a, lee onwe ya ebe a, lee ebe a, q d[ ya ka q bx na nrq; q gaghar[a q]x eju ya afq. Q
gwa nwanyqma ka q gaa butebe onyinye a ga-enye ha; ma mgbe q na-akwxla ihe a, ijiji ekwoo
wooo, ha dum apxa n’anya ha. ha ahxkwagh[ onye q bxla. Nze etie mkpu na ihe ebube emeela
taa. Ha akwado ozugbo gaba qlx ebe nd[ ya niile nq
Mgbe ha na-eru, otu n’ime xmx-okorob[a ya ahx ha gwa nd[ qzq s[, “Nd[ a n-ab[a d[ka nna m
Nze na Nwanyqma”. Nd[ qzq ach[a ya qch[ otu q ga-esi na-ekwu na onye ngwqrq ga-enwe ike
[garute n’ebe a. Ka ha na-esi agxgq, nd[ a na-ab[a n’ike n’ike. Ha dum agbara qsq hx na q bx ha,
makxa ha, kpxa ha isi qrqghqrq. Xfqdx anqdx ebe ahx na-ebe akwa q]x [hx nna ha. Nze onye
ngwqrq ya bx ihe ar[apxtara n’qr[a, onye na-agabegh[ ije qtxtx afq ka o ji xkwx ya abxa b[arue
qlx.
Nna ha Nze ebido n’isi kqchaara ha ka ha ra bx ihe dakwas[r[ ya. Ha akpqkqta nd[ agbataobi ha
kqkwaara ha. Mgbe ha ]xr[chara q]x, ha niile akwado laba xlq [ga ]xr[kqta q]x maka qgwxgwq
a gwqrq nna ha Nze. Qji bx isi omume. Qgbalx (1980:55).
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Ihe akxkq ifo a, na-akxzi ma na-echetakwara nd[ Igbo bx mkpa qji d[ n’[nabata qb[a n’omenaala
Igbo. Xd[ akxkq ifo a ga-na-akxziri xmxaka usoro omenaala nd[ ha kwes[r[ [mata, ma naechekwa
nd[ okenye na omenaala Igbo ji qj[ na [nabata nd[ qb[a kpqrq ezi mkpa. Akxkq ifo nke
qzq edemede a na-arxtx aka bx nke na-akxzi ezi agwa na irubere nd[ nne na nna isi. Ifo chakpii,
wqq!
Otu xbochi, ka nne na nna kwadoro [px n’xlq ya gaa qrx, ha ziri xmx ha ka ha ghara ime mkpqtx
n’ihi na ebelebe na-egbu n’obodo mgbe ahx. Imirikiti ihe d[ egwu na-eme. Nd[ agha na-esi n’ala
qzq na-anwxkqrq xmxaka. Otu n’ime iwu e tinyeere xmxaka a bx ka ha ghara [sx ihe gbowam
n’odo, gharakwa ime ka anwxrx kwxpxta, n’ihi na ihe nd[ a na-egosi na mmadx nq n’xlq. Mgbe
nne na nna xmxntak[r[ a pxrx, ha amalite mewe mkpqtx, suwe ihe n’odo, mewe ka anwxrx
kwqpxtawa. Ka ha na-eme nke a, agha olu esi n’elu, agha Igbo esi n’ala b[a dokpxrx xmxntak[r[
ahx.
Mgbe ha nq n’xzq, xmxaka amalite takar[wa onwe ha. Nke a takar[a nke a, nke a atakar[a nke a,
ma ka ha kwukatara, otu onye agha du ha gwara ha na ebe q bx na ha anxgh[ ihe niile a gwara ha,
na ha gaje [nx nke onye iro ugbu a,wee kpxrx ha gbafuo.
Ifo chakpii, wqq! (Okonkwo, 1976:110). Ihe mmxta d[ n’akxkq ifo a bx mkpa q d[ na xmxaka ga
na-erubere nd[ nne na nna ha nakwa nd[ na-elekqta ha isi. Nd[ Igbo nwere qtxtx akxkq ifo nakwa
ezi agwa nd[ a txrx anya na xmxafq Igbo ga na-akpa. Ebe edemede a merela ka a mata uru d[
iche iche agxmagx qd[naala na-abara nd[ Igbo, o kwes[r[ ka a chqq xzq a ga-esi kwagide ya ka q
hapx [lacha kpam kpam.
Ihe Nd[ a ga-eme Iji Chekwaa ma Kwalitekwa Agxmagx Qnx:
· Nd[ Igbo ga-esepxtx aka n’oke ilere igwe onyoonyoo televishoqnx na ng[ga
ozuru xwa ma tinyekwa uche n’egwu qnwa, maka na q bx n’oge egwu qnwa ka agxmagx
qd[naala nd[ a d[ka ifo, gwam-gwam-gwam, okwuntxh[, ilu dgz, na-akpxtakar[ ihe kar[a
nd[ qzq.
· Nd[ q d[ n’aka [hazi usoro ihe qmxmx, malite n’xlq akwxkwq pra[mar[, gaagba
mbq tinye oge maka qmxmx agxmagx qd[naala.
· Nd[ xlq qrx mgbasa ozi n’ikuku, redio/tv ga-entinye agxmagx qnx nd[ a
n’usoro ihe omume ha, ma nyekwa ha oge zuru oke.
· Gqqmenti , nakwa xmxafq Igbo nd[ omenaala Igbo na-amas[ ga-akwado
nhiwe asqmpi n’agxmagx qd[naala, nke ga-enwe ihe nrite nd[ na-adq xsa, iji kpalite
mmxq nd[ na-eto eto.
· Nd[ nne na nna ga-ewepxta oge na-eforo xmx ha ifo nakwa agxmagx
qd[naala nd[ qzq maka na ihe a mxtara na nwata na-aba n’qbara.
Okwu Mmechi
Omenaala mba tarakwa qji! Obodo qbxla nwere omenaala nd[ e jiri mara ha. Usoro omenaala nd[
a bx ihe na-enye aka na-ahazi akparamaagwa na usoro obibi ndx ha. Agbxrx nd[ Igbo nwere
qtxtx omenaala mana oke mmxta na ejigh[ ihe kpqrq ihe e meela ka omenaala nd[ a na-achq
[gbanahx nd[ Igbo. Agxmagx qd[naala d[ka enyo e ji ahx usoro obibi ndx nke agbxrx d[ iche
iche, bx ihe ga-enye aka n’[txteghar[ usoro omenaala Igbo nd[ ahx na-achq [nwx anwx.
34
Edensib[a
Abakere, C. (2009). “Definition of Culture” in Aghamelu .F. and Asomagha .C.(eds) Readings in
African Thought and Culture. Enugu: Strong Tower books.
Chinagorom, L.C, (2013). Uru Eze Akanka N’Agxmahx Igbo Ugbua. Owerri: I.O Publishers.
Ejiofor, P. (2009). Ibeku Nd[ Igbo Maka Asxsx Igbo. Awka: Valid Publishing Company.
Ewelukwa & Uzochukwu .C. (2012). Nhazi Igbo Maka Ule Sinio Sekond[r[ na Koleji. Onitsha:
A.C. Global Publishing Co
Nwadike, I.U. (1993). Nka na Usoro Nkuzi Igbo. Nsukka: Ifunanya Publishers
Ogbalu, F.C. (1980). Nza na Obu. Lagos: Thomas Nelson Publishers.
Okonkwo, M.N. (1974). A Complete Course in Igbo Grammar. Lagos: Academy Press.
Osuagwu, B. (1971). Nd[ Igbo na Omenaala ha. Ibadan: Macmillan Publishers.
Uzochukwu , S. (2004). Akanka Agxmagx na Nnyqcha Agxmagx Igbo. Onicha: Kawuriz and
Manilas Publishers.
35
NTXLE NJX AJXJX N’OLU UBURU NA N’OLU IZII
Eze Maudlyn Adaora1
Igbo Department,
Command Secondary School
Abakiliki, Ebonyi State
meezeadaora@gmail.com , 07069585555
na
Ezemoka, Augustina2
Igbo Department,
FCT College of Education, Zuba, Abuja,
tinasommy04@yahoo.com; 08033553006
Ụmiedemede
Ederede a gbadoro ụkwụ n’inyocha njụ n’olundị Uburu na olundị Izii nke dị na Steeti Ebonyi.
Ndị ode kọwara ihe bụ njụ ajụjụ, ụdị njụ ajụjụ dị iche iche e nwere n’olundị Uburu na olu ndị
Izii. A kọwakwara myiri na ndịiche dị n’olu ndị obodo abụọ ndi a. A gbasoro usoro ụtọasụsụ
ọdịnaala mee nchọcha a. E nyere ọmụmaatụ dị iche iche. A gbara ajụjụ ọnụ nakwa ịgụ ihe ndị
ọka mmụta ụfọdụ derela n’isiokwu were mere ngwa ọrụ. A chọpụtara na ndị Uburu nwere njụ
ajụjụ ndị a: ndee, nda, ngịnị, onye, mgbe one, aya, awe, ebee ebe olundị Izii nwere njụ ajụjụ ndị
a: ndee, be onye/onye be, ngunu/ngụnụ, nteke ole, be. A chọpụtara na e nwere myiri ndị a
n’olundị Uburu na nke Izii: ndee, awe/bụ awe, ngunu, ngịnị, onye/be onye. Ndị iche a chọpụtara
na njụ ajụjụ dị n’olundị obodo abụọ bụ mgbe one, ntekeole, Izii e nweghị ayaa na ebee. E kwesịrị
ka e leba anya n’olundị ọzọ dị na Steeti Ebonyi dịka Izaa, Afikpo na Ikwo.
Mkpolite
E nwere obere nd[iche e nwegas[r[ qhxx nd[ qka mmxta kqwapxtara gbasara njx ajxjx nke
xfqdx mmadx amabeghi. E nweela qtxtx mmadx dere maka njx ajxjx mana o nwebeghi onye
dere n’olu Ubxru na n’olu Izii nke kpalitere mmxq odee.
Ihe qzq kpalitere mmxq odee ide maka ntule njx ajxjx n’olu Ubxru na n’olu Izii bx ka
xfqdx nd[ mmadx nwee ike mara ka nd[ Izii na Ubxru si aju ajxjx ma nwee ike itinyekwu ya
n’xzq e nwere ike isi na-ekwur[ta okwu ma n’qmxmx asxsx Igbo.
Ebumnuche nchqcha
Ebumnuche odee na nchqcha a bx ikwu ihe bx njx ajxjx, xzq d[ iche iche nd[ Ubxru si ajx ajxjx,
xzq nd[ Izii si ajx ajxjx, myiri na nd[ iche d[ n’olund[ abxq nd[ a.
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Atxtx nd[nisiokwu
Atxtx odee gbasoro mee nchocha a bx usoro xtqasxsx qd[naala. Njx ajxjx bx mkpxrxokwu ahx
na-egosi na ah[r[okwu bx ah[r[ajxjx. Xd[ mkpxrxokwu a na-arx qrx ka aha site n’[bx isiah[r[,
nnara ngwaa ma q bx nnara mbuxzq, ma q bx mmeju.
Qmxma atx
a. Onye kpqrq g[? (d[ka isiah[r[)
b. Anyi mere g[n[? (d[ka nnara ngwaa)
c. Nwaany[ ahx bi n’ebee? (d[ka nnara mbuxzq)
d. Nke a bx g[n[? (d[ka mmeju)
(Mgbemena, 2006).
Njx ajxjx bx okwu nd[ ahx e ji egosipxta mgbe e mere ah[r[okwu bxrx ajxjx n’asxsx Igbo. Okwu
nd[ a na-eme ka a mata mgbe e mere ah[r[okwu bxrx ajxjx, matakwa xd[r[ qs[sa tosiri ya bx
ah[r[okwu nke ga-enye ah[r[okwu ahx qnqdx tosiri ya (Okoye, 2004).
Asxsx q bxla n’xwa nwere njx ajxjx nke ha, etu a kwa ka q d[ n’asxsx Igbo. Olumba d[ iche iche
nwekwara njx ajxjx nke ha. Q bx njx ajxjx nd[ a d[gas[ iche iche ha nwere n’olu ha ka ha ji amata
mgbe a jxrx ha ajxjx ma matakwa xd[r[ asisa dabara adaba nke ha ga-enye ajxjx ahx n’olu be ha
(Nwaozuzu 2006).
A na-etinye akara ajxjx n’isi njedebe mkpxrxokwu ma q bx ah[r[okwu q bxla bx ajxjx. Ajxjx
d[ka “kedu?” bx ajxjx nd[ a na-enweghi ike iji ee ma q bx mba zaa. Ajxjx nd[ mejuputara ya bx
nd[ a:
Onye – who
G[n[ – what
Ebee – where
Ole – (how), (which), (when)
Ole nke – (which)
Ole mgbe – (when)
Ole etu – (how)
Mgbe ole – (when)
Etu ole – (how)
Nke ole – (which)
(Mbah, 2012).
Oge xfqdx, nnqchiaha d[ka ‘I’ ‘{‘ ‘Q’ na-arxkwa qrx d[ka njx ajxjx. Qmxmaatx:
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a. I bere akwa?
b. { kqrq ya qnx?
c. O tiri ya ihe?
d. Q kxrx nwa ya qkpq?
Oge xfqdx, nnqchi mpesin ‘A’ na ‘E’ nwekwara ike [rx qrx d[ka njx ajxjx. Qmxmaatx:
a. A kxrx aka?
b. E gburu ewu?
Uru nchọcha
Ime nchqcha bara nnukwu uru na ngalaba qmxmx ihe q bxla. Q bx maka uru nchqcha bara mere
e ji eme nchqcha tupu a gxchaa akwxkwq n’xlq akwxkwq ukwu q bxla. E nwere uru nchqcha
ga-abara nwata akwxkwq, nd[ nkuzi na qhanaeze.
Uru nd[ a gxnyere
1. Nchqcha a ga-enyere nwa akwxkwq aka [mumi ihe gbasara njx ajxjx nke qma.
2. Q ga-enyekwa aka ka nwata akwxkwq a mxtakwuo ebe d[ iche iche njx ajxjx nwere ike
[pxta ihe nke qma.
3. Nchqcha a ga-enyekwa aka ka nwata akwxkwq mara njx ajxjx n’olu nd[ Ubxru nke d[
n’okpuru qch[ch[ Qhaqzara nke d[ na Steeti Ebonyi.
4. Q ga-enyekwa aka ha amatakwa njx ajxjx n’olu Izii nke d[kwa n’otu Steeti Ebonyi ahx.
5. Nd[ nkuzi ga-esikwa na nchqcha a mxtakwuo qtxtx ihe gbasara njx ajxjx n’olu Ubxru
nakwa n’olu Izii ma nwekwaa ike itulekqr[ta ha abxq qnx.
6. Nchqcha a ga-enyekwara qhanaeze aka iji nweta amamihe d[ iche iche site n’ibawanye
mkpxrxokwu njx ajxjx ha.
Ntuleghar[ agxmagx
Ọtụtụ ndị ọka mmụta agbaala mbọ ileba anya na njụ ajụjụ na ụdị ya dị iche iche. Egwim (2008)
kọwara ụdị njụ ajụjụ dị iche iche e nwere dị ka ndị a:
a. Mkpụrụokwu ndị e ji ajụ ajụjụ n’asụsụ Igbo ụfọdụ bụ ndị a: aṅaa, (aghaa) ebee (abee,
nee, ọlịa), gịnị (gụnụ, nịnị), kedu (kedi, koone, (how, where), ndii (ndaa, ndee) ole (one)
one (how much, how many, olee (elee) (where, which, how, when), ọlịa (how) onye
(who)?
b. Njụ ajụjụ ndị na-akwụrụ onwe ha nghọta ha zuru oke. Qmụmaatụ bx aṅaa (how), ebee,
(where) gịnị (what, kedu (how about), ọlịa (how), onye (who)
c. Njụ ajụjụ ndị na-eji ụdaala bido gafere n’ụdaelu wee kwụsị na ụdansụda. Qmụma atụ
ndii, ebee, aṅaa, oleee.
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d. Njụ ajụjụ na-eji nnọchiaha mere isiokwu, mana njụ ajụjụ nọ n’ahịrịokwu ahụ na-arụtụ
aka na nnọchiaha isiokwu. Qmụmaatụ
I dị aṅaa?
Ha dị aṅaa?, ọ dị aṅaa?
Ha dị aṅaa?, o jere ebee? Ha jere ebee, Unu jere ebee?, Ọ gịnị? Ọ bụ onye?
e. Njụ ajụjụ ndị nwere ike ịbịa na mbido ahịrịokwu bx nd[ a: Ebee, Gịnị, Kedu, Ndii, Ole,
Onye
f. Njụ ajụjụ ndị na-abịa na ngwụcha ahịrịokwu: I mere aṅaa? [ gara ebee?
g. Ahịrịokwu njụ ajụjụ na-eji nnọchiaha ajụ ajụjụ oge ụfọdụ, ọmụmaatụ:
Nne ọ nọ ya?
Ijeọma ọ bịara ụka?
I maara mgbe akwụkwọ ga-emechi?
Mbah (2012) kọwapụtara ụdị njụ ajụjụ dị iche iche dịka ndị a:
a. Ajujụ nkwenye – Nke a bụ ụdị ajụjụ a tụrụ anya na onye a na-ajụ ya ga-ekwenye site
n’azịza ya. Njirimara ya bx “Oọ kwa ya”. Lekwa atụ ya ga:
i. Nwoke ahụ bụ onye Abakeleke, Oọ kwa ya?
ii. Onyinye bụ onye nkuzi, Oọ kwa ya?
b. Ajụjụ Ee ma ọ bụ Mba. A tụrụ anya na onye a jụrụ ụdị ajụjụ a ga-aza ee ma ọ bụ mba.
Ọmụmaatụ
Ijeọma ọ ga-ab[a?
Ngozi ọ ga-eje akwụkwọ?
Ọ sara ahụ?
3. Ajụjụ kedu – Ọ kọwapụtara ndị a dịka ajụjụ kedu. Ọmụmaatụ:
Onye, gịnị, ebee, olee, mgbe ole, etu ole, nke ole,
4. Njụ ajụjụ ndị ya na kedu nwere ike ịgakọ ọnụ. Ọmụmaatụ
Kedu/kedị onye unu chọrọ?
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Kedu/kedị ebe ị na-aga?
Kedu/kedị nke na-eme?
Kedu/kedị mgbe ị b[ara
Kedu/kedị ib ọ na-aga?
Ezeomeke (2004) kọwakwara njụ ajụjụ dị ka ọnọdụ mkpụrụokwu ma ọ bụ ahịrịokwu na-anọ e
wee mata na ọ chọrọ onye ọzọ ga-ekwunyere ya n’ụdị ịgwa ya ihe ọ chọrọ. Ha bụ okwu ndị naajụ
ajụjụ na-achọ onye ga-asa ha ajụjụ ha jụrụ. Ọ sị na e kewara njụ ajụjụ ụzọ abụọ (a) Okwu
ndị bụ kedu/kedị n’onwe ha (b) E nwere ike iji nnọchi aha jụọ ajụjụ.
Emenanjọ (1999) kọwara njụ ajụjụ dị ka okwu ndị e ji ajụ ajụjụ. Ọ sị na njụ ajụjụ ndị e nwere
n’Igbo bụ ndị a: aṅaa, ebee, gịnị, kedu, ndii, ole olee, ọlịa. O nyekwara ụfọdụ njụ ajụjụ ndị ọzọ e
nwere n’olundị.
Ezikeojiakụ kọwakwara na e nwere ike iji nnọchiaha jụọ ajụjụ n’ahịrịokwu. N’ebe a, ụdaolu naenye
aka iji gosipụta nke a. Ekeulu (2006) kọwaa na e nwere ike iji nnọchiaha dịka ‘I, Ị, Ọ na O’
na-ajụkwa ajụjụ. Ọmụmaatụ:
I kwenyere na nke a?
Ị na-aga ahịa?
Olumba (2011) kọwara njụ ajụjụ dịka aha ya siri dị, mkpụrụokwu ndị bụ njụ ajụjụ bụ ajụjụ ka ha
na-ajụ. Mkpụrụokwu ndị a sokwa na njụ ajụjụ: kedu, olee, gịnị, onye, ole. Odee na-akwado
nkọwa nke Mbah (2012) na nke Egwim (2008). N’agbanyeghi ntuleghari agụmagụ e mere
n’isiokwu a, o nwebeghi onye mere n’olundị Ubụru na n’olundị Izii.
Nchọpụta
Njụ ajụjụ e nwere n’olundị Ubụru dị iche iche bụ:
 Ndee
 Nda
 Onye
 Ngini
 Mgbe one
 Aya
 Awee
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 Ebee
Ọrụ dị iche iche njụ ajụjụ ndị a na-arụ
1. Ndee
E nwere ike iji ndee gosipụta ebe (where), etu (how) na gịnị (what). Mana anyị ga-ahụta nke a
n’etu okwuu si debe ọnụ kwuo ya. Ọmụmaatụ:
Ndee ive mere? (What happened?)
Ndee evọọ?
Ndee gi ị mere? (How are you?)
Ndee ebe [ na-eje? (Where are you going?)
Ndee ebe mamọ gị nọ? (Where is your mother?)
Eserese 1
Ndee ebe mamo gi no
nju nju nkw nkw mk mk nn nn ng ng
Nnju Nn
A Nmk
Nnkw Nmk Nn Nnkw
Nnju
A
2. Ndaa
Ndaa na-egosipụta naanị (how). Ndaa nwere ike ipụta/ igosipụta kedu ka i mere? Kedu
maka arụ gị kedu maka ọrụ gị, dgz
Ndaa anaghị adịkarị n’ahịrịokwu. ọ bụ njụ ajụjụ zuru oke na nghọta
Eserese 2
Ndaa
Nj
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3.Ngini
Ngini bụ nju ajụjụ e nwere ike iji jụọ ajụjụ maka ihe dị ndụ ma ọ bụ ihe adịghị ndụ. Ngini bụ nju
ajụjụ a na-ejikarị nju ajụjụ mgbe olu ojụụ lara elu. ọmụmaatụ
a. Ngini ive ị ne-eme?
b. Ngini ne-eme oo?
Eserese 3
Ngini ne-eme oo
nju nju ng ng nnọ nnọ
Nnju Nng
A Nng Nnju
A
4. Onye
Onye bụ nju ajụjụ a na-ejikarị achọpụta ihe ọmụma atụ.
Onye wero akpa m
Onye kwuru gi ivo ọ bụ
Onye mwere ivo oo
Onye gburu nkuta m
Eserese 4
Onye gburu nluta m
nju nju ng ng mk mk nn nn
Nnju
A Nng Nmk Nmk Nng
ng
Nnju
A
Mgbe one
Mgbe one bụ nju ajụjụ na-egosipụta/ akọwapụtakarị oge/
ọmụmaatụ:
mgbe one bụ ive ije ije avịa
mgbe one ị ve ije iwa
mgbe one ive ije ishi nri
5. Aya
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N’olundị Uburu, e nwere ike iji aya jụọ ajụjụ dịka ndaa na a na-ajikarị ya ajụ ajụjụ mgbe olu
ajụjụ ọjụjụ dị elu
Aya? (how, what)
Ome aya? (What Happened?)
I mere aya? (how are you)
Ayagọ o na-ada?
Awee
Nke a bu nju ajụjụ nke pụtara “ebee?” ọmụmatụ:
a. I ne-eje awe?
b. Mamo I jeer awe?
Ch. Chineme jeer awe?
Ebee
N’ olu Uburu, ebe bụ njụ ajụjụ na-anabata njụ ajụjụ ọzọ tupu o nwee ike iru ọrụ zuru oke.
Ọmuma atụ:
a. Ndee ebe i ne-eje
b. Awee ebe ọ nọ
Nju ajụjụ abụọ nwere ike [b[akọ ọnu n’olo ụburu
Ndee onye tiri gi ive
Ndee mgbe I je [wa
Ndee ebe mamọ nọ
Awee ebe ijeoma jere
Njụ ajụjụ nd[ na-anọkar[ naan[ n’ isiahiri okwu n’ olu Uburu. ọmụmaatụ:
Ndee, Ndaa.
Njụ ajụjụ nd[ nwere ike [nq n’ isiah[r[ nakwa, na ngxcha ah[r[okwu bụ nd[ a
Ngini, mgbe one, Aya na Awee
Njụ ajụjụ e nwere n’ olu izii bụ ndi a
a. Ndee
b. Be onye
c. Be gunu/ngunu
d. Nteke ole
e. Be
Ebe d[ iche iche ha na-arụ ọrụ
a. Ndee
Ndee epha g[?
Ndee ga i mere
43
A
Nnj An
nj nj Nno ng
b. Be onye tchiri gi aka nchi?
Be onye bu i cho?
Be onye debe iphe?
A
Nnj Nng
Nj nj ng mk
ch. Awee by ije?
Be awe be ije?
A we bu ishi?
Be awe bu ishi?
A
Nnj Nng
Nj nj ng mk
Be awe be
D. be ngunu bu iralu
Be ngunu bu ime
I me ngunu
E. Nteke ole bu ibya?
Be nteke ole bụ ije ụka
Be ji buono? (Is that yam)
Bem mmeda inuru ire igodo
Be m mmeda b’ iku
Be m mmeda b’iphuru?
Njx ajujụ nwere ike idi naan[ n’isi ahiriokwu bụ nd[ a,
Ndee
Be, ntekeole
Nd[ nwere ike [d[ n’ isiah[r[ nakwa na ngwxcha ah[r[okwu bụ nd[ a
Awe bụ awe, gunu, bụ ngụnu,
44
Myiri d[ n’ olund[ abụọ nd[ a.
1. Ndee
Nd[ Uburu na nd[ Izii na-eji ndee Nju ajụjụ
2. Awee Olund[ abụọ a na-ejikwa awe njx ajụjụ
Myiri
Uburu Izii
Ndee Ndee
Awee Awee bụ/Awee
Myitiru
Ngini ngunu
Onye onye/Bụ onye
Ndi iche
Mgbe one nteke ole
Aya Ebe –
Nchịkọta na mmechi
Na ntule nju ajụjụ n’ Olu Uburu a chọpụtara na:
a. Ndaa na Ayaa n’ olu Uburu bụ njx ajụjụ zuru oke na nghọta mana ndee ezughi oke na nghọta.
b. Na ndee nwere ike [nabata onye ebe, mgbe mana q gagh[ anabata Ngini na Awee. Ndaa
anagh[ anabata njx ajụjụ ọzọ
ch. Ndee na Ndaa na-anqkar[ naan[ n’ isi ah[r[okwu
c. Ngini, mgbe one, aya na awe nwere ike [nọ n’isiah[r[ nakwa na ngwxcha ah[r[okwu. N’olu
Izii, a chọpụtakwara na
1. Ndee anagh[ anabata njx ajụjụ ọzọ
2. Be na – anabata onye, awe gunu, nteke ole
3. Be nwekwara ike nọrọ n’ onwe ya n’ enwegh[ mgbakwunye njx ajụjụ ọzọ
4. Ndee, be, nteke ole nwere ike [nq naan[ isiah[r[owku
5. Awee/ be awe, gunu/be ngunu, onye/be onye nwere ike [nq n’isi ah[r[okwu nakwa na ngwxcha
ah[r[okwu.
Na nch[kọta, olu Uburu nwere njx ajụjụ nd[ a: ndaa, ndee, ngini, onye, mgbe one, Ayaa, Awee, na
ebee
Olund[ Izii nwere njx ajụjx nd[ a. Ndee, be onye/onye, be awe/ awe be ngxnx/ngunu, nteke ole/be
nteke ole na be olund[ abụọ a nwere myiri na nd[iche. Ha abụọ nwere ndee na awe ngini na ngunu
nakwa onye na onye/bx onye. Ha nwekwara ndịiche ha dịka mgbe one na ntekeole, Nd[ Uburu
nwere Ayaa na ebee mama nd[ Izii enwegh[ ya. Ndee n’ olu Uburu na-anabata njx ajụjụ nd[ ọzọ ebe
be bx nke na-anabata njụ ajụjụ nd[ ọzọ n’ olu Izii.
Edensib[a.
Egwim, J.C.(2008). Ntọala Ụtọ Asụsụ Igbo. Ibadan: Safmos Publishers.
Ekeulu. C.V. (2006). Ntụziaka n’ Ọmụmụ Asụsụ, Agụmagụ, omenala na Ewumewu Igbo. Lagos:
Kandu Publishers.
45
Emenanjo, E.N., Dike, O.N., Agomoo. S.N., Ezeuko, R.O. (1999).Igbo Exam Focus. Ibadan:
University Press plc.
Ezeomeke, S.O. (2004). Igodo Nghọta Ụtọ asụsụ Igbo. Enugu: Easy Quality Press
Ezikeojiaku, P.A. (1989). Fọnọloji na Ụtọ Asụsụ Igbo. Lagos: Macmillan Nigerian Publishers
Ltd.
Mbah, B.M. (2012). GB Syntax: A Minimalist Theory and Application to Igbo. Enugu:
CIDJAP Press.
Nwaozuzu, G.I. (2006). Dialects of Igbo Language. Onitsha: Africana Publishers Ltd.
Okoye, O.(2004). Ntuziaka Maka Ụda Asụsụ na Ụtọ Asụsụ na Omenala Igbo. Enugu: Chelys
Publishers,
Olumba, P.I. (2011). “Njx Ajụjụ n’ olu Mbaise”. Ederede Semina nke Usoro Okwu Igbo.
Mahadum Naijiria, Nsuka.
Uba- Mgbemena, A. U (2006). Ntqala Usoro Asụsụ Igbo. Ibadan: Gold Press Ltd
46
NZIPXTA OMENALA N’IDUUAZ{ IGBO
N. M. OBI
Department of Igbo, African & Asian Studies
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
+2348064444837 nonyemobi06@yahoo.com
Xm[edemede
Q bx ihe doro ewu na qkxkq anya na qtxtx omenala nd[ d[ nnukwu mkpa na ndx mmadx, q
kachas[ na ndx nd[ Igbo na e jikwagh[ ha kpqrq ihe qbxla, Nke a wee bxrx ihe na- ebute nnukwu
nsogbu n’ihi na a chqpxtara na o nwere omenala nd[ ga-abx ha ad[gh[ na ndx nd[ mmadx; o
kachas[ nd[ ntorobia o weta nnukwu nsogbu , Q bx nke a kpqlitere mmxq odee ime nchqcha a
iji gos[pxta na iduuazi Igbo ga- enye aka n’xzq pxrx iche n’ ime ka nd[ Igbo, q kachas[ nd[ naetolite
etolite mata omenala Igbo nd[ bara uru na ndx onye Igbo qbxla. O bx iji gos[pxta uru
iduuaz[ Igbo bara n’ime ka nd[ mmadx mara omenala ha ka e jiri hqrq iduuazi Igbo abxq bx
Qkpa Aku Eri Eri ( 2014) nke Ude Qd[lqra iji gos[pxsta n’ezie na iduuaz[ Igbo d[ka otu
n’ime ngalaba agxmagx atq e nwere bx xzq pxtara ihe e si amxta omenala. Edemede a naakwado
ka onye qbxla, q kachas[ nd[ ntorob[a nwewe mmas[ n’[gx iduuaz[ Igbo n’agbanyegh[
na ha anagh[ amx asxsx Igbo n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu. Nke a ga-enye aka ime ka nd[ Igbo, q
kachasi nd[ ntorob[a mara omenala ha di iche iche nke bara uru na ndx ha.
Mkpolite
Omenala bx ihe bara nnukwu uru nyere agbxrx qbxla n’ihi na q na-eweta qganiru na mmepe
obodo. A na esite n’omenala xfqdx enweta amamihe site na nke a enweta [d[notu nakwa inwe
ike imepxta ihe bara uru d[ iche iche ga- enyere nd[ mmadx aka, N’ihi enwegh[ nghqta zuruoke,
qtxtx nd[ mmadx q kachas[ nd[ Igbo na- elegharaz[ omenala ha anya n’ ihi na ha na-ahxta
omenala ha d[ka ihe mgbe ochie nke abakwagh[ uru qbxla. Nd[ Igbo (Afrika maobx Naijiria) bx
nd[ a kachara jiri xd[ omume a mara n’ihi na qtxtx nd[ Igbo bx nd[ anaghienwe mmas[ n’ihe ha
nwere. Ha na- enwekar[ mmas[ n’ ihe nd[ agbxrx qzq nwere. Ebe onnume qjqq a na –
apxtakar[cha ife bx n’otu ha si akpaso asxsx ha agwa nleda anya n’agbanyegh[ na asxsx Igbo
d[ka q d[ n’asxsx nd[ qzq bx ya bx isi sekpx nt[ n’ihe gbasara omenala. Nchqcha e mere gos[r[ na
nd[ Igbo gxrx akwxkwq anagh[ enwe mmas[ n’[sx asxsx ha. Kama ha na-enwekar[ mmas[ n’iji
asxsx bekee we na-enwe mmekqr[ta q bxlad[ n’etiti onye Igbo na ibe ya. N’ezie nke a bx ihe
[gba anya mmiri n’ihi na nd[ Igbo s[ na “onye kpqq qba ya mkpqkqrq”, agbataobi ewere ya
kpoo ntx
N’ezokwu, nd[ Igbo ejigh[ omenala ha kpqrq ihe na-apxtakar[ ihe n’ebe d[ iche iche. N’qtxtx
qgbakq d[ iche iche ebe a na –akpa ihe d[gas[ mkpa metxtara omenala n’ala Igbo, a na-eji asxsx
bekee wee na-eme mkpar[taxka. Ihe na-ebutekar[ nke a bx maka na qtxtx nd[ mmadx na-achq iji
oge ahx gos[ qhaneze na ha bx ‘ a kwaa a kwxrx’ n’ebe [sx asxsx bekee d[. Nke ahx bx ihe
qjqq jqgburu onwe ya.
Asigbo (2012:65) kqwara omenala d[ka etu ndi mmadx si ebi ndx, etu ha si eji ejiji, etu ha si
azx xmx ha, etu ha si eli ozu ha, agx egwu, enye xsa banyere mkpar[, anx qgx ha, etu ha si esi ma
na-eri nri ha dgz. O bx nke a mere na nhazi banyere mmepe qbxla a na-eme nke agbadogh[
xkwx n’ihe gbasara omenala agagh[ akwxdo maqbx ad[gide. Q bx nke a mere na q di nnukwu
47
mkpa ka mmadx, q kachas[ nd[ ntorob[a mara omenala ha d[ iche iche n’ihi na q ga-enye aka
iweta qganiru na mmepe obodo nke ga-akwxdo akwxdo.
Nkqwa Omenala
Omenala bx xzq nd[ mmadx si ebi ndx ha nke na-esite n’aka otu qgbq fere n’aka qgbq qzq. Otu
ihe so n’ihe nd[ d[ mkpa e jiri mara omenala bx na q na- ad[r[ na-aga. Q bx nke mere na nd[ isi
ojii nke nd[ Igbo so n’otu n’ime ha nweghatara ihe nd[ d[ n’omenala ha ma gaa n’iru were ha
na- ad[ ndx ha si n’qgbq gaa n’qgbq qzq
Calhoun (1998:52) hxtara omenala d[ka ihe a mxtara amxta banyere xkpxrx e si eme ihe nke
dabara adaba; ihe nd[ mmadx wegara d[ka ihe d[ mkpa, amamihe , ihe nd[ sitere n’qrx aka
(artifacts), asxsx na ihe ndi e ji egos[pxta ihe d[ iche iche (symbols) nke a na-egos[pxta n’etiti
nd[ mmadx na-ebi otu xd[ ndx. Ha kqwara na omenala gxnyere nkwenye any[ banyere ihe nd[
d[ mkpa na ndx; nke a na-enyezi aka n’ime mkpebi banyere mpxtara ihe nd[ any[ na-eme.
Any[ na-akwado qch[ch[ onye kwuo uche ya (democracy), ofufe otu Chineke, nakwa
asqrqmampi onye kacha meta ihe nke qma maka na omenala any[ kuziiri any[ mee ha.
Mmadx [hx ibe ya n’anya bxkwa ihe sitere n’omenala, maka na etu any[ si eme mgbe any[ hxrx
mmadx ibe any[ n’anya bx ihe any[ mxtara site n’omenala nke sitere n’xd[ n’akwxkwq,
magazines, ejije,ihe ngos[ onyonyoo d[ iche iche, egwuregwu, egwu qgxgx d[ iche iche dgz any[
gxrxla nakwa nd[ any[ hxrxla. Na npaghara xwa xfqdx ibi ndx qjqq na nke ruru unyi nke any[
na-akpq [hxnanya bx ihe a magh[ maka ya. Ihqrq nwunye maqbx di socha n’omenala. Tinyere
nkwenye nd[ qzq, akparamaagwa na omume nke nd[ mmadx bi n’otu ebe na-ekekqr[ta bxcha ihe
sitere n’omenala.
Omenala bx ihe nd[ mmadx na-ewepxta ma were ya na- adi ndx ha. E nwekwara ike [s[ na q bx
ihe nd[ mmadx ghqtara ma kwekqr[ta na ya nke ha ji ach[kqta ihe ha na-eme. Site n’iwepxta ihe
e were d[ka omenala na itinye ha n’qrx site n’iji ha ebi ndx kwa xbqchi nd[ mmadx na-aga
n’iru na-enwe mmekqrita na nghqta ha nwere banyere xwa. Sitezie na nke a, a na-enwe ohere
maka idozighar[ omenala d[ iche iche ka ha wee daba n’ihe nd[ d[ mkpa mmadx [mata nke
dabara n’oge a no n’ime ha. N’ihi nke a, omenala anagh[ akwxrx otu ebe; kama q na-anabata
mgbanwe. E nwere ike wepu omenala nke a chqpxtara na ha ad[gh[ mma. E nwekwara ike
webata ihe qhxru nke a chqpxtara na q ga-abara nd[ mmadx nakwa obodo uru. Iji maatu, n’oge
gboo [mx nwa ejima bx arx nyere omenala Igbo; nke butere igbu xmx ejima. Mana d[ka oge na –
aga a chqpxtara na nke a ad[gh[ mma n’ihi na q bx ikwafu qbara; nke a mere ka a kwxs[ ya. O
nwegara qtxtx omenala Igbo nd[ qzq ad[gh[ mma a kwxs[r[ .N’otu aka ahx,o nwekwara nd[ d[
mma e webatara qhxrx nke ga-ebute qganiru, mmepe na [d[ n’otu n’obodo.
Nd[ mxrx maka ihe gbasara mmekqr[ta mmadu na ibe ya (sociologists) na-amx ihe niile banyere
omenala. Ha nwere ike leba anya n’akxrxngwa omenala nakwa ihe a na- emegas[ na ya (d[ka
akwxkwq eserese d[gas[ iche iche, ebe a na-edebe ihe qkpx d[ iche iche (museums) na ebe
mmepxta egwuregwu ( recreational centers) nke e were d[ka ihe omenala d[ mkpa, nkwenye, ihe
ngos[pxta njirimara ihe (symbols) na amamihe maqbx ha agaa n’ihu chqpxta etu omenala siri
metxta ihe xfqdx d[ iche d[ka qrx d[ iche iche, nhqpxta nd[ mmadx maka qch[ch[ obodo, xlq
akwxkwq gas[ dgz.
Q bx nke a mere Asigbo(2012:65) jiri kqwaa na q bx n’ihi [chqpxta uru omenala bara na
mmepe na qganiru obodo mere nd[ United Nations jiri hibe otu d[ka UNESCO ka ha na-ahu
maka ihe gbasara omenala nke ga- enye aka na mmepe na qganiru obodo nke ga-eme ka e
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nwee udo na nghqta zuru oke n’etiti nd[ mmadx nakwa n’etiti obodo n’ibe ya. Nkwenye nd[
Na[jir[a banyere omenala d[ka q d[ n’ Enem (1990:72) nke kwenyere na nkwqwa
Asigbo(2012:55) banyere omenala d[ka :
Xzq niile nd[ mmadx wepxtara ha si ebi ndx n’[gba mbq ka ha
nwee ike gboo mkpa nd[ na apxta d[ka nd[ mmadx na-ebi ndx na
gburugburu ha nke na-eme ka enwee ezi mmekqr[ta, qch[ch[ akunuba,
idi mma na idebe usoro ekpemekpe nakwa xd[d] nhazi site na nke a
e nwee nd[iche n ‘etiti nd[ mmadx na nd[ agbataobi d[ iche iche
Nke a mere na a ga-as[ na omenala bx xzq niile mmadx si ad[ ndx d[ka esi eme ya n’ogbe
maqbx obodo ya. Q bxkwa ihe zuru mmadx niile qnx banyere etu nd[ mmadx bi n’otu ebe
maqbx obodo si ad[ ndx ha, otu ha siri hazi usoro ha ga-esi eme ihe,otu ha si eme omume, eji
ejiji, esi nakwa eri nri ha, asxsx dgz. Ya mere na site n’ihe niile a kqwara banyere omenala, any[
hxrx na q bx ihe bara nnukwu uru. Q bx nke a mere na a na-agba mbq isi n’xzq d[ iche iche naegos[
pxta omenala nd[ Igbo d[ka odee iduuaz[ any[ hqqrq maka nchqcha a siri zipxta omenala
Igbo d[ iche iche n’qrx ya.
Omenala Igbo Nd[ E Zipxtara n’Iduuaz[ Qkpa Akx Eri Eri
N’Iduuaz[ Qkpa Akx Eri Eri (2014) nke Ude Qd[l[qra dere e zipxtara omenala Igbo d[ iche
iche nd[ bara nnukwu uru na ndx nd[ Igbo n’oge ugbu a. Odee sitere n’isiagwa bx Akxbuxzo
were gos[pxta qrx ugbo d[ka otu n’ime nnukwu omenala d[ mkpa e jiri mara nd[ Igbo. O
zipxtara na n’agbanyegh[ na Akxbuxzq bx onyeisi xlqakwxkwq Abangwu na o jigh[ qrx ugbo ya
egwuri egwu. Akxbuxzq hxtara qru ugbo d[ka ihe bara nnukwu uru. Odee sitere na isiagwa ya a,
zipxta na nwoke qbxla kpqrq onwe ya onye Igbo ga na-ahxta qrx ugbo d[ka ihe bara nnukwu
uru site n’[d[ na-arx ya. E zipxtara n’iduuaz[ a na Akx buxzq na-akqpxta ihe oriri nd[ gxnyere ;
ji, akpx, akwxkwq nri d[ iche iche, tomatos, qka, ose, ahuekere, ede osikapa dgz. Q bx site n’xzq
d[ etu a ka- esiri zipxta qrx ugbo d[ka omenala bara nnukwu uru n’iduuaz[ Qkpa Akx Eri Eri
nke Ude Qd[l[qra. Odee gara n’iru zipxta nri nd[ Igbo d[ iche iche Akxbuxzq na-akqpxta
n’ugbo nke nd[ Igbo na-eri d[ka ihe na-edozi ahx txmad[ akwxkwq nri nke ahxekere so n’ime ya.
Q bx ihe nd[ a Akxbuxzq kqtara n’ugbo ya ka o na-eri ma na-erekwa ha wee na-enweta ego.
Odee sitekwara na nke a gos[pxta ud[ nri nd[ Igbo na-akqpxta ma na-eri nke sokwa bxrx
omenala ha. E mere ka any[ mata na o nwegh[ ihe q na-ego n’ah[a. Q bxkwa site n’ihe q na –
akqpxta ka o si azxkwa nd[ ha na ya bi. E zipxtakwara Akxbuxzq d[ka onye weere ikike o nwere
d[ka onyeisi xlqakwxkwq wee kpqrq ihe ma tinye ya n’qrx. Q bx nke a mere na o weere ala
niile d[ n’xlqakwkwq Abangwu wee mere ugbo; nke a mere ka xmxakwxkwq ya na-amx qgxgx
na odide; tinyere nke a, ha na-amxtakwa qrx ugbo nke so n’ omenala nd[ Igbo bara nnukwu uru
n’ihi na e si na ya enweta qtxtx ihe oriri d[ iche iche.
Odee sitekwara n’aka isiagwa ya zipxta [gbas[ mbq ike maqbx [d[ uchu n’qrx d[ka omenala nd[
Igbo. E gos[pxtara Akxbuxzq, nke nqchitere anya nd[ Igbo d[ka onye gbasiri ike. E ziputara ya
n’iduuaz[ Qkpa Akx Eri Eri d[ka onye d[ ike qrx; ma n’qrx ya d[ka onyeisi xlqakwxkwq
Abangwu ma n’oru ugbo ya. Ebumnobi odee ji eme ihe nd[ a bx iji kuziere nd[ qgxx (audience or
readers)na ihe nd[ a bx omenala nd[ Igbo nke bachara uru na ndx ha.
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E zipxtakwara omenala ‘Iri Ji Qhxx. N’agbanyegh[ na Akxbuxzq bx onyeisi xlq akwxkwq nke
anagh[ enwe efe, mana o na-agbasi mbq ike wee laa obodo ya maka emume iri ji qhxx n’afq
qbxla.
Inwe akqnuche bxkwa omenala nd[ Igbo. Q bx n’ihi inwe akqnuche Akxbuxzq ka ihe niile q naakq
n’ubi ya ji eme eme. E gos[pxtara na q bx mmadx nwere uche nke mere na o nwere ike naach[
kwa xlqakwxkwq Abangwu nke qma ma na-arxkwa qrx ugbo n’ebe q d[ ukwu nke mere na o
nwegh[ ihe qbxla q na-ego ego n’ah[a n’ihi na o ji aka ya akqpxta ihe niile o na- eri ma naelekwa
xfqdx wee na-akpata ego o ji egbo mkpa ya d[ iche iche.
Nsqpxrx dika omenala nd[ Igbo pxtara ihe n’akwxkwq akxkq Qkpa Akx Eri Eri. Oge niile
Chinedu bi be Akxbuxzq d[ka nwata na-ejere ya ozi, na-enye ya nsqpxrx d[ka nna ya ukwu.
Odee zipxtara na Akxbuxzq anagh[ enyeju Chinedu afq n’ihi na q bx onye akp[kp[
(economizer) achqgh[ ka akx na xba ya gwxsia. Akxbuxzq s[r[ na xmxaka ekwes[gh[ iriju afq
maka na ha rijuo afq ha ebido nzuzu.Q bx ya mere q nagh[ enyeju Chinedu afq. Mana e zipxtara
Chinedu d[ka onye na-enye nna ya ukwu nsqpxrx nke qma n’agbanyegh[ na q nagh[ enye ya nri
etu o kwes[r[. Nsqpxrx so n’omenala nd[ Igbo d[ nnukwu mkpa nke a na-ahxta na nd[ Igbo
anagh[z[ egos[pxta ya n’omume ha q kachas[ n’ebe nd[ ntorob[a nq.
E zipxtakwara omenala ‘Iga Qnqdx’ nke nd[ Igbo na-aga. Nke a na-apxta n’xd[ mmadx [kpqrq
nwanne ya maobx nwa onye qzq ka ya na ya biri ka q na-ejere ya ozi. Nke a pxtara ihe n’iduuazi
a na ndx Chinedu na Xzoma. Ha abxq bx umunne Akxbuxzq. Ha gara qnqdx na nke ya ma biri
qtxtx afq. Q bx na be Akxbuxzq ka Chinedu nqrq too bxrx mmadx a maara aha ya na be ha. Q
bx nke a mere na rue n’oge ugbu a nd[ Igbo ka na-akpqnye mmadx xmx ha maka inye ha qzxzx
d[ mma.
Omenala [kpa elulu pxtakwara n’Qkpa Akx Eri Eri. Nd[ Igbo bx nd[ a maara d[ka nd[ na-akpa
ewu, qkukq, atxrx, ehi,ezi,nk[ta, dgz. N’ iduuazi a, odee zipxtara Akxbuxzq bx isi agwa ya d[ka
onye e ji [kpa elulu wee mara, q kachi[ qkxkq. Q bx nke a mere na q nagh[ azx anx qkxkq n’ah[a.
Odee zipxtakwara n’akwxkwq akxkq a na ihe Akxbuxzq ji eme njem ya bx [ny]nya igwe. E
sitere na omenala Igbo xfqdx odee webatara mata maka oge e bu n’uche wee dee akwxkwq
akukq a. Q bx oge mmepe abatabeg[i n’ala Igbo, oge nd[ nkuzi bx nd[ nnukwu mmadx, nke mere
na Akxbuxzq bx onyeisi xlqakwxkwq pr[mar[ jiri nwee [ny[nya igwe (bicycle) d[ka nnukwu
mmadx nke oge ahu. Xgbqala ad[begh[ d[ka q d[ n’oge ugbu a. Ka o sila d[, oge a bx oge nd[
qcha wetaara any[ agxmakwxkwq biagoro. N’ ihi nke a, mmepe ka na-amalite amalite n’ala
any[. Q bx nke a mere na Akxbuxzq [ga ala Bekee d[ka e siri ziputa ya n’iduuaz[ a jiri bxrx oke
ihe na-ewu ewu tupu a lxq agha B[afra na Na[jir[a n’afq 1970.
Odee zipxtakwara omenala nd[ Igbo nke qj[ na [wa oji. Omenala qj[ so n’ omenala bara nnukwu
uru n’ala Igbo n’ihi mpxtara ya. Ihe mbx onye Igbo ga-eme iji gos[ na ya nabatara onye qb[a
b[ara be ya bx ichere ya qj[. N’akwxkwq akxkq Qkpa Akx Eri Eri, e zipxtara omenala qj[ oge otu
n’ime nd[ nkuzi ya Akxbuxzq na-alx qrx b[ara be ya. O bugoduru xzq cheere onye nkuzi ya qj[
tupu ha amalite ikwu ihe mere o ji b[a. Odee zipxtara na n’agbanyegh[ na Akxbuxzq bx onyeisi
xlqakwxkwq, nke gos[r[ na qkwa ya ka nke onye nkuzi ahx mana o cheere ya qj[ iji gos[ na ya
nabatara ya n’xlq ya. Odee gos[kwara na q bx onye nwe xlq wetara qj[ na-awa ji. Q bx ya mere
e ji as[ na qj[ eze d[ eze n’aka.
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Qzq d[kwa ka ibe ya n’omenala Igbo nd[ e zipxtara n’iduuaz[ a bx [sq nsq. Odee gos[pxtara etu
xfqdx obodo n’ala Igbo sigas[ asq anx xfoqdx nke ha kwenyere na xfqdx anx nd[ ahx bx chi
nyere ha. Nke a pxtara ihe n‘akwxkwq akxkq a mgbe nwata nwaany[ bi be Akxbuxzq gburu
Eke, Chinedu ekwegh[ [ta anx eke ahx maka na nd[ obodo ha anagh[ eri anx eke. Chinedu were
eke ahx ma nyebe ya Nwanna ka o rie, mana q jxrx jxwaa isi na q gagh] eri ya n’ihi na obodo ya
na-asq eke. Odee sitere na nke a wee gos[pxta na omenala d[ iche iche; na oge xfqdx ihe nd[ naasq,
nd[ qzq na-eri ya.
Uru D[ N’[gx Iduuaz[ Igbo D[ka O Si Metxta [mxta Omenala
N’ ezie iduuaz[ Igbo bara nnukwu uru n’ihi na nd[ odee na-esite na ya ezipxta omenala Igbo d[
iche iche. A kqwara omenala d[ka xzq nd[ mmadx si ebi ndx ha nke na-esite n’aka otu qgbq fere
n’aka qgbq qzq. A hxtara na omenala na-ad[r[ na-aga. A chqpxtakwara na omenala na-agbanwe
agbanwe. E nwere ike wepx omenala nke ad[gh[ mma ma nwekwa ike webata nke d[ mma.
Q bx site n’iduuaz[ Igbo ka a na-esite emekar[ ihe nd[ a. Ya bx na mgbe nd[ mmadx na-agx
iduuaz[ Igbo d[ iche iche, ha ga-esite na ha mata omenala nd[ Igbo d[ iche iche.. Ha ga-amatakwa
n’ qnqdx d[ iche iche ezipxtara ha; ma site n’xzo d[ etu ahx mxta omenala d[ mkpa d[gas[ iche
iche nke na-enyere mmadx aka ibi ndx d[ mma.
N’ oge ugbu a, qtxtx nd[ ntorobia amagh[ omenala ha. Q bx nke a mere na ha anagh[ ama ihe ha
kwes[r[ ime. Qmxmaatx, qtxtx xmxaka na-eto eto amagh[ na ekele na nsqpxrx bx omenala Igbo
bara nnukwu uru. Mana d[ka ha na-agxta ya n’iduuaz[ gas[ ha ga-achqpxta uru ihe nd[ a bara na
ndx mmadx. Ya bx na d[ka nd[ mmadx, q kachas[ nd[ na-eto eto na-agx iduuaz[ Igbo ha ga-ahx
omenala d[ iche iche; ha ga-amata ihe e kwuru banyere nke qbxla ma site na ha na-amxta ezigbo
ihe na-enyere mmadx aka ibi ndx d[ mma.
Fem and Thom (2001) kwadoro na omenala na-enye aka n’ime ka nd[ mmadx na-akpa agwa d[
mma. N’ omenala Igbo, ndi Igbo kwnyere na “Ome mma na-emere onwe ya; ebe ome njq na –
emere onwe ya. Ya bx nke onye metara, o sowe ya.
Ebe q bx na qtxtx ihe qmxmx a na-amx n’xlqakwxkwq d[ elu anagh[ akuzi ihe gbasara
akparamagwa na omume mmadx, q d[ mkpa ka nd[ mmadx nwee mmas[ n’[gx iduuaz[ Igbo. Ha
ga esite na ha na-amxta omenala Igbo nke ga-enyere ha aka [kpa agwa d[ mma ma bie ezigbo
ndx. Nke a ga-agaz[ n’iru weta [d[notu, udo , mmepe na qganiru na-adigide adigide n’ obodo
any[.
Nch[kqta na Mmechi
N’ezie, omenala bara uru n’ihi na q na-enyere nd[ mmadx aka n’[kpa agwa d[ mma. Omenala
na-arx qrx d[ka nwa nzi xzq nke na-agbaziri nd[ mmadx bi n’otu ebe etu ha ga-esi ebi ndx ha
wee nwee udo na [hxnaanya ga-eweta mmepe na qganiru obodo ga-atq atq (sustainable). E
nyochaala iduuaz[ Igbo a bx Qkpa Akx Eri Eri a hqqrq, wee chqpxta n’ezie na nd[ odee naewebata
qtxtx omenala Igbo bara uru n’ iduuaz[ Igbo.
A chqpxtata na e nwere omenala Igbo d[ iche iche d[ka e zipxtara ha n’ Qkpa Akx Eri Eri. A
chqpxtakwara na e nwere ike wepu omenala nke ad[gh[ mma maqbx webata omeneala qhxx nke
dabara n’oge a nq n’ime ya.
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Omenala bx ihe bara nnukwu uru n’ihi na o na-enye aka iweta udo, mmepe na qganiru naad[
gide ad[gide n’obodo. Nke a mere na q d[ mkpa ka nd[ odee gaa n’iru na-ezipxta omennala
nd[ Igbo bara uru n’iduuaz[ nke ga-enye aka n’ [kwalite agwa qma na ndx nd[ Igbo n’iduuaz[ ha
d[ iche iche.
References:
Anozie, C.C. (2003). Igbo Kwenu, Akxkq na Omennala Nd[ Igbo. Enugu: Computer Age
Publisher.
Asigbo, A.C (2012). “Evolving a Universal Culure for Peace, Good Governance and
Sustainable Development in Nigeria in The Humanities and Good Governance.
Chiegboka A.B.C et al (Eds.) Faculty of Arts, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka pp.65-69.
Calhoun, C.et al (1998). Understanding Socialogy, U.S. America: Glencoe McGraw Hill.
Enem, O.F (1999). The Nigerian Nation, Abuja: Tonem Publicity Company.
Ezechukwu, T. (2012). Ndx Nd[ Igbo, Onitsha Perfect Iimage.
Nzeako, J.U (1979). Omenala Nd[ Igbo : Ibadan, Longman
Odiliora, Ude (2004) (Revised ed.) Qkpa Akx Eri Eri, Enugu: Varsity Publishers
Ofomata, E.C (2012). Omenala na Qd[nala Nd[ Igbo, Enugu: Ofomata Publishers.
Ogbalu, F.C (2004) Omenala Nd[ Igbo. Onitsha :Varsity Press
Ubesie, Tony (1987). Qd[nala Nd[ Igbo, Ibadan: Oxford Univeristy Press

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