IDEAL INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA Volume 6 No 1, June, 2018

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Ideal International Journal
OF IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM, NIGERIA
Published by:
©Igbo Scholars Forum Nigeria
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Editor:
Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo
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CALL FOR PAPERS
IDEAL INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF IGBO
SCHOLARS FORUM Nigeria calls for well researched papers from authors in areas that borders on Igbo in relation to other people’s cultures. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Igbo, Nigerian, African people’s and others’ relations on Public policy, Language, Religion, Philosophy, Education, Medicine, History, Economy, Sociology, Culture, Engineering, Business relations, Comparative politics, strategy and environment, etc. Submit manuscripts as e-mail attachment to the Editorial Office at: igboscholarsforum@yahoo.com or send two hard copies of your papers to any of the editors. Referencing style is MLA or APA. The Journal wishes to publish the results of her researches annually.

Onukwube Alex A. Anedo
Editor
IGBO SCHOLARS FORUM NIGERIA
Department of African & Asian Studies,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,
Anambra State – Nigeria
Phone: +2348037859249, +2348149225739
e-mail:igboscholars@yahoo.com;
web: http://wwwigboscholarsforum.com.ng
Vol.6 No.1 June, 2018. ISSN: 2476-8421
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FROM EDITORIAL DESK
Ideal International Journal is one of the brain children of Igbo Scholars Forum born out of the zeal to get the young Igbo scholars together so as to start thinking like Igbo sons and daughters through paper publications, meetings and symposia. As a matter of fact, Igbo Scholars Forum was founded by Dr. Onukwube Alexander Alfred Anedo and born at the launching of a festschrift in honour of their life patron, Prof. Obed Muojekwu Anizoba (Ozonwa) on the 15th day of December, 2012. In his kind gesture, Prof O. M. Anizoba therefore established a website http://www.igboscholarsforum.com.ng for them to use in telling the world who the Igbo people are, about their life, what they believe in and their relationship with people and other cultures of the world outside theirs. Other journal outlets through which this Forum wants to let Igbo people and their
culture out to the world are Igboscholars International Journal and Ekwe International Journal which is solely written only in Igbo language.
Onukwube A. A. Anedo, Ph.D.
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Consulting Editors:
Dr. Mrs. Lizzy Anizoba                                                                                                                                                        Department of English and Litrature,
Paul University, Awka – Nigeria
Prof. Sam Uzochukwu                                                                                                                                                          Department of Linguistics, African & Asian Studies,                                                                                                          University of Lagos Nigeria
Prof Sheng Jia                                                                                                                                                                       Department of Chinese Culture & Anthropology,                                                                                                              Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province,
P. R. China
Prof Yuhua Ji                                                                                                                                                                        Department of English language & Linguistics,
Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, P. R. China
Prof B. Okolo                                                                                                                                                                       Department of Languages & Linguistics,
University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria
Dr. Gamini Ranasinghe                                                                                                                                                       Department of Archeology &
Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka
Prof. Paul Oguguo                                                                                                                                                                Department of Philosophy, faculty of Arts,                                                                                                                           Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
Dr Babette Zoumara                                                                                                                                                                      Bank for Seeds and Solar Energy,
Atlanta, Georgia, United, States of America
©Igbo scholars’ forum, Nigeria 2018
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Disclaimer of Warranties
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. Archaeological Excavations Methods
Rev Dambara Amila Thero
Senior Lecturer, Department of History and archaeology,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegodas, Sri Lanka
2. An Assessment of Affixation of Igbo Verbs in Goddy
Onyekaonwu’s Text “Nwata Rie Awọ”.
Ayozie, Chioma Rosemary
Directorate of General Studies Federal University of
Technology Owerri
08037975253; ayoziechioma2014@gmail.com
3. How to Arrange Museum Storage Arias
Rev Dambara Amila Thero
Senior Lecturer, Department of History and archaeology,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegodas, Sri Lanka.
4. The Effects of Television and Video Films on the Moral
Lives of Youths in South-East of Nigeria
Chinwuba, Chinwe Nwabuaku – Ph.D 08035077688
Okoye, Harriet N. (Mrs) 08069467983
Ewelukwa, Roseline N. (Mrs.) 08036517115
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Anambra State
5. Political Culture and Politico-Bureaucracy: Politico-
Administrative Dichotomy and Politicization of Public
Administration in Sri Lanka
Ravindra Gunasekara
Department of Political Science, University of Sri
Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka gunasekarasdr@sjp.ac.lk
Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo
Department of African & Asian Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe
University, Awka. onunedoal@yahoo.com
8

6. Conflict Management Strategies: A Case of Igbo Language
Oparah, Chinwendu E.
Department of Linguistics And Nigerian Languages, Alvan
Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
7. Compounding As a Morphological Process in Igbo in
Respect to the Concept of Endocentric and Exocentric within the Compounds
Okwara, Uchenna Stella
Department of Nigerian languages and linguistics,                                                                                                              Alvan Ikoku federal college of education, Owerri
ucheobi1981@gmail.com 08033565176
Olachi Florence Okere
Department of Linguistics & Nigerian Langaugages,                                                                                                              Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
olaedo1976@gmail.com 08038002552
8. Teaching and learning German as a Foreign Language at Tertiary Level: Application of Communicative
Language Teaching for Nigerian Learners
Obodoeze Nkechi J.
Department of Modern European Languages, Faculty of Arts,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
obodoezenkechigog@gmail.com, 08039328555
Oguike Gerald Iheanyichukwu
Department of Modern European Languages, Faculty of Arts,
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State,
Nigeriaoguike.gi@unilorin.edu.ng, 08036698252
Agu Basil Obiorah
Department of Foreign Languages &Literary Studies,
Faculty of Arts, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu,
Nigeriabasil.agu@unn.edu.ng, 08034362682
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Archaeological Excavations Methods
Rev Dambara Amila Thero
Senior Lecturer,
Department of History and archaeology,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura,
Nugegodas, Sri Lanka.

Introduction
Archaeology excavation is a very imported research system in
the field of archaeology. This paper discuses excavation
historical development, site formation, excavation type and
development led of archaeology. Archaeology excavation is
the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological
remains. An excavation site or “dig” is a site being studied.
Such a site excavation concerns itself with a specific
archaeological site or a connected series of sites, and may be
conducted over as little as several weeks to over a number of
years.
Numerous specialized techniques each with its particular
features are used. Resources and other practical issues do not
allow archaeologists to carry out excavations whenever and
wherever they choose. These constraints mean that many
known sites have been deliberately left unexcavated. This is
with the intention of preserving them for future generations as
well as recognising the role they serve in the communities that
live near them. (Lewis: 1978, 25 – 28)
Excavation involves the recovery of several types of data
from a site. These data include artifacts (objects made or
modified by humans), features (modifications to the site itself
such as post molds, burials, and hearths), Eco facts (evidence
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for the local environment and resources being used such as
snail shells, seeds, and butchered bones) and, most
importantly, archaeological context (relationships among
other types of data). Ideally, data from the excavation should
suffice to reconstruct the site completely in three-dimensional
spaces.
The presence or absence of archaeological remains can often
be suggested by remote sensing, such as ground – penetrating
radar. Indeed, grosser information about the development of
the site may be drawn from this work but the understanding of
finer features usually requires excavation though appropriate
use of auguring.
Historical Development
Excavation techniques have developed over the years from a
treasure hunting process to one which seeks to fully
understand the sequence of human activity on a given site and
that site’s relationship with other sites and with the landscape
in which it is set. The history of excavation began with a
crude search for treasure and for artifacts which fell into the
category of ‘curio’. These curios were the subject of interest of
antiquarians. It was later appreciated that digging on a site
destroyed the evidence of earlier people’s lives which it had
contained. Once the curio had been removed from its context,
most of the information it held was lost. It was from this
realization that antiquarianism began to be replaced by
archaeology, a process still being perfected. (Lewis: 1978, 46)
Site Formation
Archaeological material tends to accumulate in events. A
gardener swept a pile of soil into a corner, laid a gravel path
or planted a bush in a hole. A builder built a wall and back

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filled the trench. Years later, someone built a pig sty onto it
and drained the pig sty into the nettle patch. Later still, the
original wall blew over and so on. Each event, which may
have taken a short or long time to accomplish, leaves a
context. This layer cake of events is often referred to as the
archaeological sequence or record. It is by analysis of this
sequence or record that excavation is intended to permit
interpretation, which should lead to discussion and
understanding.
The prominent processual archaeologist Lewis Binford
highlighted the fact that the archaeological evidence left at a
site may not be entirely indicative of the historical events that
actually took place there. Using an ethno archaeological
comparison, he looked at how hunters amongst the Nunamiut
Inupiat of north central Alaska spent a great deal of time in a
certain area simply waiting for prey to arrive there, and that
during this period, they undertook other tasks to pass the time,
such as the carving of various objects, including a wooden
mould for a mask, a horn spoon and an ivory needle, as well
as repairing a skin pouch and a pair of caribou skin socks.
Binford notes that all of these activities would have left
evidence in the archaeological record, but that none of them
would provide evidence for the primary reason that the
hunters were in the area; to wait for prey. As he remarked,
waiting for animals to hunt “represented 24% of the total
man-hours of activity recorded; yet there is no recognisable
archaeological consequences of this behaviour. No tools left
on the site were used, and there were no immediate material
“byproducts” of the “primary” activity. All of the other
activities conducted at the site were essentially boredom
reducers.” (Horn and White: 1986, 62 – 63).
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Excavation Types
There are two basic types of modern archaeological
excavation:
I. Research excavation – when time and
resources are available to excavate the site
fully and at a leisurely pace. These are now
almost exclusively the preserve of academics
or private societies who can muster enough
volunteer labour and funds. The size of the
excavation can also be decided by the director
as it goes
II. Development – led excavation – undertaken
by professional archaeologists when the site
is threatened by building development.
Normally funded by the developer meaning
that time is more of a factor as well as its
being focused only on areas to be affected by
building. The workforce is generally more
skilled however and pre-development
excavations also provide a comprehensive
record of the areas investigated. Rescue
archaeology is sometimes thought of as a
separate type of excavation but in practice
tends to be a similar form of development-led
practice. Various new forms of excavation
terminology have appeared in recent years
such as Strip map and sample some of which
have been criticized within the profession as
jargon created to cover up for falling
standards of practice. (Barker, 1982, 33 – 34)
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Development Led Archaeology
There are two main types of trial excavation in professional
archaeology both commonly associated with development-led
excavation: the test pit or trench and the watching brief. The
purpose of trial excavations is to determine the extent and
characteristics of archaeological potential in a given area
before extensive excavation work is undertaken. This is
usually conducted in development-led excavations as part of
Project management planning. The main difference between
Trial trenching and watching briefs is that trial trenches are
actively dug for the purpose of revealing archaeological
potential whereas watching briefs are cursory examination of
trenches where the primary function of the trench is
something other than archaeology, for example a trench cut
for a gas pipe in a road. In the USA, a method of evaluation
called a Shovel test pit is used which is a specified half meter
square line of trial trenches dug by hand. (Cobb and Olson:
2015, 29 – 30)
Stratification
In archaeology, especially in excavating, stratigraphy is a
fundamental concept. It is largely based on the Law of
Superposition. When archaeological finds are below the
surface of the ground (as is most commonly the case), the
identification of the context of each find is vital to enable the
archaeologist to draw conclusions about the site and the
nature and date of its occupation. It is the archaeologist’s role
to attempt to discover what contexts exist and how they came
to be created. Archaeological stratification or sequence is the
dynamic superimposition of single units of stratigraphy or
contexts. The context (physical location) of a discovery can
be of major significance. More precisely, an archaeological
context is an event in time which has been preserved in the
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archaeological record. The cutting of a pit or ditch in the past
is a context, whilst the material filling it will be another.
Multiple fills seen in section would mean multiple contexts.
Structural features, natural deposits and inhumations are also
contexts. (Pillip: 2010, 75)
By separating a site into these basic, discrete units,
archaeologists are able to create a chronology for activity on a
site and describe and interpret it. Stratigraphic relationships
are the relationships created between contexts in time
representing the chronological order they were created. An
example would be a ditch and the back-fill of said ditch. The
relationship of “the fill” context to the ditch “cut” context is
“the fill” occurred later in the sequence, i.e., you have to dig a
ditch first before you can back – fill it. A relationship that is
later in the sequence is sometimes referred to as “higher” in
the sequence and a relationship that is earlier “lower” though
the term higher or lower does not itself imply a context needs
to be physically higher or lower. It is more useful to think of
this higher or lower term as it relates to the contexts position
in a Harris matrix, which is a two-dimensional representation
of a site’s formation in space and time. (Hill: 2009, 50)
15

References
Binford, Lewis. 1978, “Dimensional analysis of Behaviour &
site structure”. American Antiquity. Washington.
Barker, 1982, Techniques of Archaeological Excavation (2nd
ed.). London.
Roosevelt, Cobb and Moss, Olson. 2015, “Excavation is
Digitization, Advances in Archaeological
Practice Journal of Field Archaeology, New York,
Van Horn, D.M., J. R. Murray and R. S. White. 1986, “Some
Techniques for Mechanical Excavation in
Salvage Archaeology”. Journal of Field Archaeology,
Washington.
Pillip, B. 2010, How to Dig, Past Perfect. Retrieved, Profile
Books, New York “PBS’ Time Team America to
Debut July 8 with Dig on Roanoke Island”. First
Colony Foundation. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
Hill, Rosemary.2009. “Stonehenge”. Profile Books, London.
16

An Assessment of Affixation of Igbo Verbs in Goddy
Onyekaonwu’s Text “Nwata Rie Awọ”.
Ayozie, Chioma Rosemary
Directorate Of General Studies,
Federal University of Technology Owerri
08037975253; ayoziechioma2014@gmail.com
Abstract
This research work hinges on the assessment of affixation.
Affixation forms an integral aspect of word formation
processes in most languages of the world, Igbo language
inclusive. This paper looks at the pattern and the most
frequent affix used in Goddy Onyekaonwu’s text Nwata Rie
Awo. Data were drawn from the said book through exclusive
reading, lexical items which are affixes where identified and
the types of affixes explained. A descriptive approach was
employed in this paper. The study observed that such affixes
as employed by Goddy Onyekaonwu in the text Nwata Rie
Awo performed certain functions such as emphasier, negative
markers, inflectional function. The paper opines that owing to
the fact that the affixation pattern inherent in any literary work
goes a long way in helping the reader to understand the text,
further studies of this nature should be undertaken by other
scholars in this direction in order to help the readers to
understand the text.

Introduction
Language is the chief source of communication of
ideas. There are some other ways such as dance, music,
physical gestures and symbols through which we can
communicate ideas. But language is a very common and easy
source of communication. As encyclopaedia Americana
(2004, p.727) puts it:
17

Language is the principle and richest means of
communication used by human beings. Language
functions primarily as spoken means of
communication. It can however, also be transferred to
other media, mostly clearly as in the case of writing…
In addition, the deaf communicates, in which the aural
medium is not available, the visual medium is
exploited for deaf sign language.
Every language has its own ways and rules about the
structure and formation of new words that makes it unique.
Affixation is one of these processes of word formation and it
occurs under the concept of morphology and morpheme.
Morphology is a branch of linguistics that deals with the
internal structures and formation of words.
Yule (2006, p.62) defines morphology as “the study
of forms”. These forms are what we have as morphemes.
Morphemes are the smallest units of grammar. There are two
kinds of morphemes; free morphemes and bound morphemes.
A free morpheme can stand alone and is understandable in
isolation. Example rat. A bound morpheme cannot occur
alone. Example –ish in girlish. Affixation is the process of
attaching affixes (bound morphemes) to the existing stem,
root or base morphemes in other to form new words or change
the meaning of the existing one. It is one of the productive
ways of forming words in Igbo language.
Babarunde (2009, p.58) states that affixation comprises
of prefixation, suffixation, interfixation, infixation. Anagbogu,
Mbah and Eme (2000, p.102) include circumfixation. All
these are morphological processes. Morphological process is a
means of changing a stem to adjust its meaning to fit its
syntactic and communicational context.
Ndimele (2008, p.22) classified affixes based on two
criteria. The first criterion is the position in which the affix
occurs relative to the location of the root of the world while
the second is the function an affix performs when it is
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attached to the root of a word. This paper, therefore attempts a
detailed analytical study on the types of affixes used in Goddy
Onyekawnwu’s text Nwata Rie Awo.
The text under analysis is an Igbo drama text written
by Goddy Oyekaonwu (1980). The main character in the
drama text is a young man named Aworo son of Obidike from
Amangwu community. When Aworo won Akatoosi in a
wrestling competition, he was not aware that a lady named
Obioma has developed an affection for him, due to the
affection Obioma had for Aworo, she left Anene who was
supposed to marry her. Aworo’s parents accepted Obioma out
of Aworo’s wish.
After the marriage, Obioma was pregnant and gave
birth to a baby girl. This made Aworo to detest Obioma in a
pronounced way, only for the reason that Obioma gave birth
to a baby girl instead of a baby boy as their first issue. Due to
this, Aworo sold Obioma and her baby to slavery. He stayed
for fifteen years without a wife. During this period, Obioma’s
daughter who she named Odinchefu was sold to a goldsmith
who is from Utonkom, who took Odinchefu as a slave girl.
They relocated to Amangwu Aworo’s village.
After fifteen years, Aworo decided to get married. He
got married to her daughter unknowingly, lived with her for
five years without a child. Odinchefu started suffering from a
very terrible sickness. These circumstances made Aworo to
seek for solution to these problems. He consulted a chief
priest who said for thing to fall in place, he must go in search
of his wife and his daughter, whom he sold to slavery. The
chief priest told him to go to Isuama where he will find his
wife, with this, things will fall in place but a tragic story will
go with it.
It took Aworo one year to find Obioma, good things
began to manifest in the life of Aworo. For this reason, Aworo
called for celebration. On the faithful day, Obioma and
Odinchefu found out that they are mother and daughter and
19

co-wife as well, which is abomination. This draw the attention
of people and it was done on Aworo that he has been sleeping
with his daughter. This made Aworo to commit suicide.
This study is arranged as follows: abstract,
introduction, conceptual framework, analysis of data collected
from Goddy Onyekaonwu’s text, findings, summary,
Recommendation and Conclusion.
Conceptual Framework:
Here concepts are defined and ideas are
systematically organized to provide focus and are used for
interpretation of information. These concepts include:
Affixation with its types.
Morphology
Akmajian, Demers, Farmer and Harnish (2001, p.12)
assert that, morphology is a subfield of linguistics that studies
the internal structure of words and the relationship among
words. Okolo and Ezikeojiaku (1999, p.119) state that,
morphology is concerned with the shape or form of words. It
is interested in such questions as: “what is the smallest
meaningful unit in language? How are the distinctive units set
up in phonology realized in words? The opinions of these
scholars are pointing at morpheme, which is the minimal units
of linguistic form and meaning and how these morphemes are
make up to form words. According to Ndimele (2008, p.9)
morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit of an utterance
which may not, however, exist in isolation. Babarinde (2009,
p.22) states that there are basically two types of morpheme.
These are free morphemes and bound morphemes”. Free
morphemes are morphemes that can stand on their own with
meaning and can function in a sentence independently. Free
morphemes are lexical morpheme because they have inherent
or intrinsic meanings. Words belonging to lexical categories
20

like nouns, verbs, adjectives, conjunction, propositions, and
determiners.
Bound morphemes are morphemes that cannot stand
on its own, it is exclusively attached to a free morpheme for
meaning. Example, in-, un-, -less, -ly. As being stated,
morphology deals with the formation of words and words are
formed through several ways. Affixation is one of the ways of
word formation.
Affixation
Affixation is a morphological process whereby a
bound morpheme, an affix, is attached to a morphological
base. Ndimele (2008, p.22) points out that, affixation is a
morphological process of attaching an affix to the root or base
of a word. Umera, Nneka and Nwankwo (2009, p.50) assert
that affixation is the addition of prefixes and suffixed to the
root word or base with or without change of word class.
Example is the addition of dis-to advantage to get
disadvantage. This does not change the word class form noun
which it is, while the addition of –er to driver making it
driver. This has changed the word class from verb to noun.
From all these definitions above, affixation is thus a process
of adding a morpheme or affix to a word to create either a
different form of that word or a new word with a different
meaning. Affixation is the most common way of making new
words.
Ndimele(2008,p.3) also notes that, the position and
function of an affix when attached to a root is definitive of the
category of that affix. Hence, there exist prefixes, suffixes,
infixes, interfixes, circumfixes, superfixes and suprafixes in
the positional classification of affixes. An affix can be in
inflected or derived from when they are attached to the root of
a word. For Igbo language, prefixes.
Igbo is an isolating language with relatively little
morphology. That is to say grammatical information
21

is for the most part encoded word externally or
discrete root morphemes as opposed to word
internally via a series of affixes. As is typical of kwa
languages, the majority of Igbo words are
morphologically simple, showing little to no
morphological structure. Igbo verbs, however, do bear
a modest amount of morphological structure. Verb
inflects for tense (past, present, future) and aspect
(progressive, perfective, durative, incoactive) via both
prefixation and suffixation. In addition, verbs bear
additional morphology depending on the sentence
type. For example, verbs in imperative sentences bear
special suffixes and in negative sentences they take
certain prefixes (UCLA, 2009).
Affixes involved in word formation are only
derivational morphemes that can change the structure and the
meaning of words they are added to. According to Emenanjo
(1991, p.85) says that Igbo affixes can be prefixes, suffixes
and interfix. Most Igbo prefixes are clearly derivation in
deriving nominal (nouns) from verbs. Igbo language is a
verb, centered language and so derivational processes involve
the verb. Derivation is the process whereby new words are
formed from existing words.
Methodology
In this research, a descriptive approach was
employed in this paper. Linguistics takes a descriptive
approach to language. It tries to describe things as they are not
as we wish them to be.
Data Analysis and Presentation
This study provides proper assessment of
affixation of Igbo verbs in Goddy Onyekaonwu’s text Nwata
Rie Awo. This study further identifies certain functions such
22

as emphasiser, negative markers, and inflectional function that
determine the most frequent affix used in the text.
Affixes Base on Position
Ndimele (1999, p.22) says “prefixes is an affix
which occurs before the root or base of a word”. Ballard
(2001, p.51) “a prefix is an affix which occurs in word
initially”.
Here morphemes are added at the word initial
position of words. Verb is the major source of word formation
in Igbo language, noun and gerund are inclusive. Examples:
Prefixes Root words Derived words
a- Gba agba to run
a- Ju aju ask
a- Ji aji hairs
a- Ru aru abomination
a- Isi isi head
i- Ru iru to work
i- Ji iji to hold
i- Ime ime to do
i- Ku oku fire
Q Ru aru work
q- Cha ocha fair
The sound / ị/, /a/ and /q/ are used in the text as a prefix and
a second person pronoun. These examples also show that
prefixation in the text make the verbs change to noun which
makes prefixation an inflectional as well as derivational
operation in Igbo language
Suffixation: According to Ejele (1996, p.83) states that,
suffix occurs after. It is an affix that is added after the root
word. Igbo suffixes are bound morphemes and they modify
23

the meanings of the verbs to which they are affixed. Such
inflectional suffixes are recognized in the text. In the case of
past tense, eexamples from the text
Roots Suffixes Derived Words
Inter-fixation
Ndimele (2008, p.32) asserts that, an interfix is an
affix which occurs between two or sometimes non-identical
roots. It involves the existence or insertion of an affix in
between two identical forms. It is a bound morpheme uniting
two segments in derivational operations.
Examples from the text
egwu + re + egwu – egwuregwu (play)
mkpu + ta + mkpu – mkputamkpu (beat)
efu + re + efu – efurefu (vagabone)
atu + m + atu = atumatu (plan)
Kpe Sara kpesara
complained
Gwa Ra gwara told
Bia Ra biara came
Nu Chara nuchara finished
drinking
Gba Tara gbatara ran
Je Chaa jechaa finished
working
Me Turu meturu touched
We Putara Weputara brought out
Ri Gotara rigotara climbed
Zi Tere zitere sent
24

Affixes Based on Function
Affixation as employed by Goddy Onyekaonwu
in the test Nwata Rie Awo performed certain functions. The
following include the inflection suffixed recognized so far.
The perfective affirmative form: Igbo language has the
perfective affirmative inflectional verbal suffix marker –la.
Perfective aspect expresses action that has been completed.
The suffix –la is affixed to the verb root to express perfective
aspect.
Example from the text
Aworo aburula nwa m taa
Ha emeteela agu nu n’ura
Azutachaala m umu irighiri ihe a siri m
zukota
Awaala m oji
Nna anyi i meela
Ugbu a o chajaala
Anyi emechaala ihe niile
The underlined morphemes –la are bound inflectional affix
attached to the CV stem in accordance with the principle of
vowel harmony. They cannot occur alone in the sentence
except when attached to CV stem. The writer used perfect
aspect to express a completed action.
Negative Suffix:
Emenanjo (1987, p.96) divided the negative suffixes into
two: Imperative negative –la and the non-imperative negativeghi
In the case of imperative negative –la used in the
text. It gives order in a negative sense.
25

Examples
Biko egbula m. Please don’t kill me.
Aka ahu emetukwala m n’onu. Don’t touch your hand on
my mouth.
Ewela iwe. Don’t be angry.
The writer used the imperative negative –la to give order in a
negative sense. In the case of non-imperative statements in
the text, it gives the opposite in meaning of an idea. It is
marked with the negative suffix –gh.
Examples
O buru na i kpotaghi ya. If you did not bring him.
Nke mere na o lotaghi n’abali. This made him not to come
back in the night.
O dighi ha mma. It is not good for them.
Kemgbe m jiri huchaa ike
Aworo kpara unyaahu
amakwaghi m ebe m no.
Ever since I saw Aworo’s
strength, I have not been
myself.
A makwaghi m ihe m gaekwu.
I did not know what to say.
Inflectional Suffix – riri used in the case of emphatic marker.
In the text, the writer used the suffix – riri to lay emphasis, to
show that it is something you must do. The suffix – riri shows
the importance and urgent it is, making it clear by speaking
with force.
Examples
I ga-eririri nri a taa. You must eat that food today.
A ga-achopuriri ya n’obodo
a.
We must chase him/her away
from this village.
Afo ga-ewetariri ihe o
togboro.
You must bring what you
kept.
Uzu ga-akpoliteriri ya. Noise must wake him up.
26

Findings
The findings of the study based on the data analysis found out
that:
Affixation is the morphological process in which
bound morphemes are attached to a root or stem to mark
changes in the meaning, part of speech or grammatical
relationships.
From the study, the researcher has observed the three
types of affixes in Igbo to mark changes in the meaning, parts
of speech and grammatical context. Three examples above
made the opinion clear. One important features of affixes is
that affixes take on several forms and serve different
functions. The researcher found out that the author used
affixes on several forms and they serve different functions in
the text which shows that what the character said is important
and also expresses actions completed by the character.
Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion
The aim of this study is achieved by finding out
various affixes used in the text Nwata Rie Awo and such
affixes performed certain functions in the text. Every
language has its own ways and rules of new words formation
which makes the language unique. Word formation is a
complex process which requires adequate mastery of the rules
to control and apply the process of formation. Formation of
words does not just appear like that out of the idle rather,
there are several methods that are used to create new words
which affixation is one of the processes of word formation in
Igbo language. It occurs under the concept of morphology and
morpheme. The affixation pattern used in Goddy
Onyekaonwu’s text Nwata Rie Awo goes a long way in
helping the reader to understand the text. However, this study
do not claim an exhaustive treatment of the morphological
processes in the text. Further studies of this nature should be
27

undertaken by the scholars in this direction in order to aid
comprehension.
References
Akmajian, A. Demers, R.A., Farmer, A.K. and Harnish, R.M.
(2001). Linguistics an introduction to Language and
communication (5th ed). New Delhi: Prentice Hall.
Anagbogu, P.N.; Mbah, B.M. and Eme, C.A. (2001).
Introduction to linguistics. Awka: J.F.C.
Babarinde, S. (2009). Morphology: Its Basics and
Application. Nsukka: Paschal Communication
Ballard, K. (2001). The Framework of English: Introducing
Language Structures. China: Palgrace Publisers Ltd.
Ejele, P.E. (1996). An Introductory course on language.
Portharcourt: University of Portharcourt press.
Encyclopaedia Americana. (2004). International Edition Vol.
16. U.S.A: Scholastic Library Publishing Inc.
Danbury Connecticut.
Emenanjo, E.N. (1987). Element of Modern Igbo Grammar.
Ibadan: Oxford University Press.
Emenanjo, E.N. (1991). Nchikota Asusu na Utoasusu Igbo
Izugbe. Lagos: Longman Nigeria Plc.
Ndimele,O.(2008).Morphology and Syntax. Port Harcourt: M
and J Grand Orbit Communication.
Okolo, B.A. and Ezikeojiaku. P.A. (1999). Introduction to
Language and Linguistics. Benin City: Mindex
Publishing Company.
28

Onyekaonwu, G. (1980). Nwata Rie Awo. Awka: University
Publishing Company.
Umera, O. Nneka, P. and Nwankwo, U.C. (2009). Studies in
Morphology and Syntax of English. Awka: Mount
Camel Printing and Publishing Limited.
University of California, Los Angeles. Igbo In: Language
Material Project. 2009. Retrieved from
http://www.imp.ucla.edu/profile.aspx?langID=13$me
nx=004
Yule, G. (1996). The study of Language (3rd Ed). U.S.A:
Cambridge University Press.
29

 

How to Arrange Museum Storage Arias
Rev Dambara Amila Thero
Senior Lecturer,
Department of History and archaeology,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura,
Nugegodas, Sri Lanka.

Introduction
The Heart of the Museum is its ‘collections, Therefore we
should pay our highly attention storage arias in the museum.
This work studies about environmental, temperature, relative
humidity and visible lighting in the museum storage arias.
A museum’s storage area is a vital part of any museum and
generally contains the larger part of the collection. It also
plays an essential role in the development of a museum and its
programmes as it is closely linked with other activities, such
as research, consultation, exhibitions, conservation. The
storage area guarantees the preservation of and accessibility to
the collection, and as a result the proper care and management
of collections in storage is an important challenge for
museums if they are to maintain their roles as centres of
knowledge, research and inspiration.
Preventive Conservation and Storage Management
The proper care of the collections while in storage and the
correct management of the storage area are integral parts of
preventive conservation for museum collections. Preventive
conservation refers to measures and actions aimed at avoiding
or minimizing future deterioration or loss, and good
management of the storage area is the first defence against the
deterioration of a collection. In a well – planned and well-run
30

storage environment, most forms of deterioration will be
either slowed or avoided. Costly and complicated
conservation treatments are of little use if the objects treated
are kept in an unsuitable storage space. (National Park
Service: 1999)
Environmental Conditions
Environmental conditions are highly controllable in most
indoor situations. They include the temperature, relative
humidity, light levels present in a collection space on any
given day, and contaminants. Some flexibility is naturally
built into most collections when it comes to the temperature
and humidity changes they can bear, allowing for conditions
to vary somewhat in response to the outdoor environment of a
location.
Two types of light offer potential decay to cultural heritage:
ultraviolet (UV) light and visual light (light that can be
perceived by the human eye). Although they can be affected
simultaneously by removing light sources, reducing overall
intensity, or increasing the distance between a light source and
an object, best preventive practice treats these types of light
separately due to their differences (Druzik, and Bent Eshoj:
2007). Contaminants can come in many forms including
naturally occurring chemical breakdowns in certain
compounds, particulate pollutants, and accidental human
contamination. Protecting collections from contaminants can
be as simple as creating barriers to prevent abuse or as
complicated as taking preventive actions to protect an object
from its own chemical breakdown.
31

Temperature
Any storage or display situation must take into consideration
the temperature at which collection permanence can be
optimized, and systems should be in place that aim to meet
that standard, ideally in conjunction with efficient use of
energy and funds. Different materials react to temperature in
different ways. For example, ceramics are vulnerable to direct
heat on a mechanical level, but many organic materials are at
greater risk of undergoing phase transition if the temperature
becomes excessively cold. One rule of thumb applies across
the board: the rate of chemical reactions is dependent upon
temperature in such a way that higher temperatures reduce the
activation energy and hasten chemical degradation processes.
(Jimbo: 2012, 23-37)
Human comfort levels must also be considered. Storage areas
can often get away with slightly lower temperatures than
display areas since they are not accessed as often, and it is
most likely that those who do enter the space will be prepared
for the conditions. In galleries, however, viewers must feel
comfortable enough with the temperature to spend time there,
otherwise the collection will simply not be viewed and lose its
purpose in being on display.
Relative Humidity
In recent decades, it has become understood that even delicate
organic materials have some elasticity in their response to
relative humidity (RH) fluctuations, allowing the materials to
swell or contract as necessary. This phenomenon is naturally
reversible within a range of 50% ± 15% RH. ị4] Destructive
chemical and mechanical processes, such as hydrolysis at high
RH and embrittlement and cross-linking at low RH, can be
32

held to a minimum within a similar range for a general
museum collection. . (Tumosa: 1999, 69–74)
Moisture has strong effects on nearly all cultural heritage
materials, with ceramics and glass being exceptions to these
effects in most cases. Metals face the risk of corrosion as RH
increases, a risk which is enhanced by surface contaminants
and emphasizes the need for proper housing. Additionally,
mold growth is far more likely as humidity increases, which
not only could cause allergic reactions for viewers but it also
weakens the collections afflicted and attracts other pests. ị6] In
contrast to this requisite for dry conditions, if the atmosphere
is not humid enough wooden objects could crack or warp, and
many organic materials face embrittlement below 40% RH.
Charles S. (Tumosa: 1999, 69–74)
Although minor and gentle fluctuations in RH can reasonably
be withstood by most collections, quick or drastic shifts can
be harmful. Anistropic materials such as wood and ivory are
especially responsive to humidity changes, and RH issues are
compounded when they are attached to inorganic materials
such as a metal. The metal acts as a restraint, hindering the
organic materials’ ability to expand and contract as needed.
Thus, cultural heritage objects composed of highly responsive
materials or a combination of organic and inorganic materials
should ideally be in carefully controlled climates and buffered
against the atmosphere by their display or storage housing.
Visible Light
Visual light, measured in lux or foot-candles cannot be
eliminated, as it is required both to view collections in detail
and to move safely in the presence of collections.
Unfortunately, this means that harmful oxidation effects
which visual light makes possible also cannot be eliminated,
33

but merely reduced to the amount necessary for the task at
hand.
The effects of visual light began to be studied by artists and
color manufacturers as early as the 18th century, but it was
not until the mid – 20th century that the chemical damage
caused by different lighting situations was researched in
depth. In recent decades the cumulative nature of light
degradation has become better understood by conservation
science. Comprehensive studies began to emphasize longterm
effects and allow for short-term variation in light levels
depending on the specific situation: standard viewing, viewing
by the aged, complex study or treatment, and observation of
low contrast details all may have different requirements.
Practical compromise between protection of cultural heritage
and allowing the artifacts to fulfill their visual purpose means
there is an allowance of some physical risk. (Allman: 2010,
24)
Even with this flexibility, light interaction should be limited
to moments when an object is on view or undergoing study,
and the level of lighting should be chosen accordingly.
According to Museum Registration Methods, 5th edition, the
suggested light levels for certain types of objects is as follows,
The traditional recommended light level for sensitive
materials – including textiles, botanical and zoological
specimens, pigmented objects, works on paper, and organic
materials such as feathers, furs, and skins – is no more than 50
lux or 5 fc. Moderately sensitive materials, such as oils and
acrylics on board and composite inorganic objects, should be
exposed to light levels of not more than 150 lux or 15 fc. The
traditional levels recommended for the least light-sensitive
materials, such as stone, ceramics, metals, and glass, are not
more than 300 lux or 30fc. Because lighting effects are
34

cumulative, any limit in exposure – whether in time or in
intensity – prevents material degradation. A period of intense
or lengthy light exposure should be balanced out with periods
of low exposure (Allman: 2010, 30). The management of a
cultural heritage object serves to identify the staff members
responsible for care and maintenance of the collection, and
establish proper management technique guidelines. Records
management should take place when an object enters a
collection, when it is moved or shipped, during regular
collection inventories, and throughout any conservation
treatment as per established collection management policy
standards. ị22] Records management of a cultural heritage
object often takes place in the form of photographic
documentation combined with written reports designed to
provide a visual reference for future professionals, revealing
the original condition and any successive states of the
condition. These records are sometimes digitized and stored in
computer databases using collection cataloging software. One
aspect of records management designed specifically for
sustaining these digitized records and documenting digital
collection materials is known as digital preservation. This
technique is used to reformat or duplicate an original object so
as to preserve a piece of digital material for as long as
possible. Combining strategic planning with conservation
actions, digital preservation aims to maintain continued access
to digital objects that would otherwise become obsolete.
(Allman: 2010, 30)
35

References
Charles S. Tumosa. 1999, Temperature and relative humidity
effects on the mechanical and chemical stability of
collections, ASHRAE Journal.
Druzik, James and Bent Esho. 2007, Museum Lighting: It’s
Past and Future Development, Museum
Microclimates. National Museum of Denmark.
Gilmore, Jean Allman. 2010, Collection Management
Policies, Museum Registration. The AAM
Press, American Association of Museums.
National Park Service.1999, “Handling, Packing, and
Shipping”, Museum Handbook, Part I: Museum
Collections.
Thmson, Jimbo. 2012, Handing Museum Objects, Museum
Society of USA.
36

 

The Effects of Television and Video Films on the Moral
Lives of Youths in South-East of Nigeria
By
Chinwuba, Chinwe Nwabuaku – Ph.D (08035077688) 1
Okoye, Harriet N. (MRS.) (08069467983) 2
Ewelukwa, Roseline N. (MRS.) (08036517115) 3
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Anambra State
Abstract
Assessing the multivocality of television media on the moral
lives of youths in South-East of Nigeria, it becomes apparent
that they are catalysts to the vices perpetrated by the youths.
Thus one is struck by the rife presence of sex, violence and
occultism shown on televisions which have affected the
youths adversely. This paper is set to appraise the positive and
negative effects of television and video films on the moral
lives of youths in South-East of Nigeria. The roles of the
government, parents and guardians as regards guarding and
guiding electronic media are highlighted so that possible
solutions to the problems would be proffered. Literature
review, questionnaires as well as observation methods were
used in the collection of data. The significance of the study is
geared towards helping the youths to cultivate good living
habits. Parents, government, religious bodies and education
sector would equally benefit from the study as each would see
areas of dereliction and be able to come up with corrective
measures.
Key words: Television, video, moral and youths
37

Introduction
Television is one of the beautiful things invented by
man that is supposed to serve them purposefully if well
managed. This scientific device is a welcome development in
society hence Nwosu (2003) defines television as:
An electronic device which combines both sound and
vision hence, audio-visual. It stimulates both auditory
and visual sense… It is a medium which uses
electricity for its effective functioning. It utilizes the
recording potentials of the videocassette recorder (p.
313).
In, all television is one of the gadgets that is supposed
to be used to educate, inform and entertain the masses
including the youths in South-East Zone of Nigeria and
beyond.
It has been observed that youths in the South-East of
Nigeria watch all manner of films via the instrumentality of
the television. Some of these films are horrible and have
influenced them negatively. The issue of watching
international club side footballers like Chelsea, Arsenal and
the rest of them amongst the said youths is a thing of note.
Football as a game in itself is good. It has brought fame to
many individuals and nations but where youths especially
students devote most of their evenings to watch these club
sides play football for hours on daily basis becomes another
thing to be worried about. This is so because some of these
football clubs play late into the night. This means that some
youths that are supposed to be engaged in their academics or
other useful personal or family chores are left outside wasting
‘precious time’ as it has become habitual for some of them.
This also from observation has brought a lot of challenges
into the society.
Also, the issue of drug observed among youths is
worthy of mentioning as one of the ripples emanating from
38

watching the Nigerian television. Considering the beautiful
advertisement on cigarettes and some alcoholic drinks, some
youths who are mainly adolescents are being influenced to the
extent that many of them smoke marijuana, drink all manner
of strong drinks as evidenced in their behavior in schools,
motor parks, markets, even among some commercial drivers,
their ages and dispositions notwithstanding.
Talking about the adverse effect of television on
Nigeria youths, a concerned parent, Otolorin (2006) cried out
to the editor or Guardian Newspaper in the following:
Sir, I would like to bring to your notice the rate at
which pornography has taken our major roads and
every corner of our streets. It is becoming very
unbearable the rate at which those who sell pirated
pornography video cassettes and CDs display their
wares in public. Primary school children within the
ages of seven and fourteen gathering around these
streets hawkers/mobile stand patronizing them. This is
an eye sore I must say. (p. 10).
The aftermath of this is that most of our youths from
observation decide to go naked on the streets and even on our
university campuses. This is common among the females who
dress to show all sensitive parts of their bodies. This in turn
has culminated into chain reactions of prostitution, violence,
degradation of culture (Igbo), distribution of deadly diseases
and other vices.
Considering the adverse effects of television on
youths of South-East geographical zone of Nigeria who are to
be the leaders of tomorrow, and the long term effect they will
have on the nation, it becomes reasonable to seek for ways to
redress these issues, hence the prompting of this research
work by the researchers.
39

Key Conceptual Issues
There are some words that needed to be explained in
this work for clarity of purpose. They are television, video
moral and youths.
Television:
Walker (2004) defines television as:
The exact and continuous transmission of visual
images, still or in motion but without permanent
recording, for instantaneous viewing at a distance:
effected by a combined optical and electrical
impulse which are converted into their visual form
in a receiving set. (p. 290).
Television is the therefore an electronic gadget that
has both audio and visual aids that help us to see images as
well as hear and articulate sounds. It has many connecting
valves through which video machines or the internet can be
connected for the watching of video films and other internet
connected programmes.
Video:
According to the New International Webster’s
Comprehensive Dictionary of the English language (2004),
video is: (1) of or, pertaining to television picture portion of a
program (2) Producing a signal convertible into a television
picture: a video cassette – A television image of electric signal
corresponding to it (p. 1400). Video films are therefore
pictures or programmes recorded in video cassettes that can
be used via the television.
Moral:
New International Webster’s Comprehensive
Dictionary of the English Language (2004) holds thus (1)
Pertaining to character and behavior from the point of view of
right or wrong, and obligation of duty; pertaining to rightness
40

and duty in conduct. (2) Confirming to right conduct; actuated
by a sense of the good, true and right; good; righteous,
virtuous, (3) concerned with the principles of right and wrong;
ethical: moral philosophy; moral values. (p. 826).
Youths:
Walker (2004) defines a youth as:
1. the condition or quality of being young
2. the time of life between children and adulthood
3. an early period in the development or existence of
anything, as a nation or organization.
4. Yong people collectively. (p. 1392).
Sociologically, young people in most societies are
between a state of dependence on their parents and the
achievement of the related economic and social independence
characteristics of adults. For this work therefore, the youths so
referred to are those young people between the ages of twelve
and twenty-five (12-25yrs).
Functions of the Television:
Television has gone a long way and as an aspect of
mass media has the following functions to fulfill according to
Wikipedia March (2007):
(a) Advocacy, both for business and social concerns. This
includes advertising, marketing, propaganda, public
relations and political communication.
(b) Enrichment and education
(c) Entertainment, traditionally through performances of
acting, music and sports, along with light reading;
since the late 20th century also through video and
computer games.
(d) Journalism
(e) Public service announcements.
Looking at the functions of the television, one would see
that they are for growth and development of the society if
41

properly managed. For example, the Nigerian television
carried a lot of educational programmes that are instructive
like the teachings on the different aspects of health up-keep
like dieting, causes of various diseases and their remedies,
various types of religious programmes that has good moral
implications as well as music that are soul enriching and many
more. All these are good and help a lot in educating the
masses but the worry of many people is that some of these
programmes that are meant to teach good ethical issues are
clothed with immoral garbs.
Consider the beautiful advertisement on the use of
cigarettes and the counter instruction that follows at the end.
This is turn may bring confusion to the youths whose minds
are still feeble. Again, consider the advertisement on how to
play safe sexual intercourse for the avoidance of HIV/AIDs
using condoms while it has been proved that most of these
condoms being factory produced can have perforations as
factory defects and can cause harm to the user without
knowing it.
Also, the issue of various films that are horrible like the
‘Yori-Yori’, ‘Church on Fire’, ‘Throne of Obstacles’, ‘The 5
Apostles’, and a lot of others that are pushed into the market
and freely bought and watched by children and adults are
worthy of note. These films that are full of violence, hatred,
magic and the like affect the viewers especially the youths
adversely with the effect that some may want to practice what
they watch from the films via the television. At this point, a
look at television programmes and video films is important.
Television Programmes and Video Films
History has it that the vision of the Nigerian
Television Authority (NTA) is to be a world class television
network. The mission also is to provide excellent television
service worldwide, projecting the true African perspective. It
is important to point out here that the true African perspective
42

which the television is set to project can be properly
visualized from the African value system of which Nigeria
and South-East states are inclusive. The African value system
can be appreciated from her religion. To throw more light on
this;
Ezenweke (2008) submits in the following:
For Africa, the role of traditional religion in
determining their modus vivendi has been vital.
African cultures are known for their religious
orientations. In fact, African cultures are religious
cultures. It is not possible to study African culture in
isolation from religion. Religion permeates the ideal
of Africans from cradle to grave. Ideals, words and
deeds are weighed in view of the supernatural
beings. Thus, values are determined by religious
precepts. In other words, African traditional religion
therefore comes into play in the shaping of the
African’s future. (p. 7).
Appraisals of some of the video films watched by
youths in the South-East of Nigeria and even beyond have
come dents on the Africanness, hence many dissenting voices
have spoken on the negative influences of these films.
Commenting on the occultism icons in Nigerian home
video while discussing the Nigerian film invasion in Ghana,
Gyasi (2004) noted the following:
Our general complaint against Nigerian films is the
overwhelming presence of the use of occultism.
Whether a Nigeria film is set in a pre-colonial era or
post-independence era, the actors will go to a fetish
shrine.
The consultation is either to enable the Actor to better his
economic and financial circumstances or to kill or spiritually
destroy a perceived rival. In ninety-nine percent (99%) of
these cases, the actor gets what he wishes and spreads death
43

and destruction Around… from time to time (electronic
version).
It is important to state here that what was observed in
2004 is still on happening today. The viewers of these films
which are mostly youths are worst affected.
Also, commenting on the depravity of some of these
films stuffed into the market for all and Sundry including the
youths to watch, Comaroff and Comaroff (1993), and Meyer
(1998) hold that any foreigner who watches many Nigerian
and Ghanaian films may think that Nigeria and Ghana are
lands of witches, native doctors, ritual killers and a host of
other paranormal powers entrenched in their films. Even when
the producers aim at teaching the lesson that does not pay to
indulge in occultism or embark on a life of crime, the lesson
may get lost in the pervasiveness of the Juju practice.
Discussing the nature of video films in Nigeria,
Wikipedia (2008) lamented that some worry that the
prevalence of witchcraft and violence in the movies may
encourage the worst stereotypes about Africans. To buttress
this further, Osofisan (2006) opined thus:
Unceasing preoccupation within juju, black magic, the
relentless celebration of dark rituals and diabolical
cults while those who chose to be different wants to
demonstrate the ineffectual power of juju rituals…
our films parade a number of serious deficiencies,
viewed from the cultural ideological perspective.
The promotion of superstitious habits, belief in
miracles and witchcraft are over portrayed rather than,
in concrete, empirical extrapolations and direct
physical participation in social struggle (p. 5).
Suffice it to say that the Nigerian culture as well as
the south- East of Nigeria which are predominantly Igbo, are
not well portrayed by dramatists in some of the films that are
44

watched by our people. The rich cultural heritage of peace,
respect for elders and spiritual beings plus work are being
replaced with cheating, maneuvering, violence, prostitution
and other vices. These have left negative marks on the lives of
the audience especially the youths who are prone to watching
them.

Conclusion
From the study made so far, it is discovered that some
youths in the South-East are influenced positively by the
television programmes especially in the area of carrying out
research work, improving their songs from the video films and
introducing more youths into the music industry, listening to
network news and other health and sports programmes that
are highly educative. To this group, as observed, the
behavioural pattern is good.
On the other hand, we observed that some of these
youths in the South-East of Nigeria who are addicted to
watching television programmes and video films, waste a lot
of time watching these films and are violent and erratic among
other vices. Some of these youths do not dress properly. They
like to expose their bodies contrary to the culture of the land
while boys plait their hairs and wear earrings as they would
want to look like their sport’s mentors they see in the
television.
Also it is observed among children and youths in
schools that some of them would like to cheat in
examinations. They have never perceived the act of cheating
as immoral. Also, the watching of pornographic films among
these youths has led some of them into prostitution,
lesbianism and homosexuality. Time and space will not
permit us to talk about substance abuse among some of these
youths which has led to violence, robbery, kidnapping and the
like.
45

Also, from our study, we found out that most parents
derelict in their duties. The act of proper supervision among
the parents has eluded them with the effect that the children in
the house are abused. The abused children later become the
delinquent youths.
Religious bodies are found to be also deficient in their
approach to issues concerning the youths. Thus some of the
youths interviewed complained that some of the religious
leaders are hypocrites who even lure them to sin? They fail to
live to their creed as they would say one thing and do the
other. These things influence the youths adversely that they
look at the adults as hypocrites whose words never marched
their actions.
Again we discovered that Nigerian government has
established National film and video Censors Board that is
supposed to censor these films before they are thrown into the
market with age graduations as touching who watches what.
This again was found not working well; for if they are
working as supposed, some of the horrible films in the market
that does not encourage or boost the Africanness in our lives
would not be there.
Recommendations
We deemed the following recommendations vital for
all and sundry seeing that the topic under deliberation touches
lives and has some connections with the youths of
today(South-East) which are the cream of the society.
1. Renewed intensive and parental care and
supervision:
We have observed that most of the abused children
are those whose parents derelict in their supervisory
roles. To this effect therefore, priority should be given
to parental care and supervision in a bid to create a
healthy atmosphere inside and outside the family.
46

Parents should monitor their children and wards very
well. They should be able to supervise the films that
enter their houses and be able to know who the
friends of their children are.
2. Religious Organization:
Abuse notwithstanding, the influence of religious
organizations cannot be played down in the character
formation of youths. For example, it is the key duties
of the church to provide sound ethical education
which direct human consciences towards doing good
and avoiding evil; towards a wholesome love of God
and neighbor as well as persuading individuals and
social groups to embrace and fill their minds with the
following: … whatever things are true, whatever
things are just, whatever things are pure, whatever
things are lovely, whatever things are of a good
report… (Philippians 4:8).
Youths in the South-East of Nigeria and even
beyond should be encouraged by their parents,
teachers and authorities to join religious organizations
like those found in Christian Churches. The activities
in these organizations will keep them busy and draw
their minds to God rather than the mundane things
that affect their psyche and moral lives adversely.
3. Attention to be given to Audio and video materials
that enter the Nigerian market:
An urgent attention to address the dangers of the
occultism icons in Nigerian home video on the rich
culture of the nation is due. Unless this is rightly
addressed, the seeming lost of Nigeria and African
values will be irretrievably consumed by the forces of
modernism.
47

Again, there is need for the National films and Video
Censors Board (NFVCB) to check-met the production of
these films not only in principles but also in actual sense to
ensure that they are well focused. They should make the film
designers focus on the moral right attitudes such as fairness,
justice, kindness, humility, the welfare of others and so on.
They should de-emphasize violence, magic, corruption, nudity
and the rest of them.
Thus, the specific norms and values of a given culture
should be borne in mind with sufficient emphasis. The
N.F.V.C.B should mount up programmes for proper
supervision of firms industry and adequately see that
offenders are duly punished. They should also mount up
programmes whereby parents would be made to understand
their roles as supervisors to their children and wards as
regards guiding and guarding what their children read, hear
and watch.
The South-East Government:
Since an idle mind is the devil’s workshop, the
government of all the states in the South-East – Anambra,
Imo, Abia, Enugu and Ebonyi is called upon to create
reasonable outlets where youths can be gainfully employed.
This will curtail their free time and make them more useful
and reasonable to themselves and the society at large.
Submitting in the same, vein, Adebambo (2017) speaking in
Guardian Newspaper under the caption “Youths As Agents of
Peace or Weapon of Mass Destruction” submitted thus:
Young people should be at the forefront of global
change and innovation. Empowered, they can be key
agents for development and peace. If, however they
are left on society’s margins, all of us will be
impoverished. Let us ensure that all young people
have every opportunity to participate fully in the
lives of their societies. (p. 30).
48

The government should equally stop street and motor
park hawking by adolescents and punish all cases of child
labour adequately. With all these put in proper place, the
moral lives of some youths that are low would be beefed up
and these will equally help to check further moral degradation
among the youths in South-East who are given to watching of
television and video films.

References
Adebambo, G. (2017). The Guardian Newspaper, Saturday,
August 12. Lagos: Guardian
Newspaper Ltd.
Comaroff, J. S and Comaroff J. (1993). Modernity and its
malcontents: ritual and power in post-colonial
African. Chicago: University Press.
Gyasi, I. K. (2004). The Nigerian Film Invasion in the
Ghanaian chronicle of 22/03/04.
Ezenweke, E. O. (2008). Modernism and African values: a
critical re-appraisal of occultic icons in Nigerian.
Home videos being seminar paper presented in the
department of Religion and Human Relations,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
Nelson, T. (1994). The Holy Bible, New King James Version.
Nashville: Thomas Nelson.
Osofisan, F. (2006). “Recreating the content of Nigeria have
video”, Paper presented at the 6th international
forum on cinema, video and motion prefers in African
held at Lagos on July 2, 2006.
Walker, A. et al (2004). The new International Webster’s
Comprehensive Dictionary of English Language,
deluxe encyclopedia edition; USA: Trident.
Wikipedia (2007). Popular press, Wisconsin: University of
Wisconsin Press.
49

 

Political Culture and Politico-Bureaucracy:
Politico-Administrative Dichotomy and Politicization of
Public Administration in Sri Lanka
Ravindra Gunasekara
Department of Political Science,
University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka
gunasekarasdr@sjp.ac.lk
&
Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo
Department of African & Asian Studies
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka
onunedoal@yahoo.com

Abstract
Developing for more than a Century, the politicsadministration
dichotomy has earned a most controversial
reputation in the history of Public Administration. As a result,
from the 1880s onwards, a large number of discussions have
been held over the share of politics and administration in the
process of governance. Politicization of bureaucracy, has been
a significant drawback in the administration as a deep-rooted
socio-cultural phenomenon in most of changing societies,
including Sri Lanka. This paper discusses the factors affected
to determine the correlation between politocracy and
bureaucracy in the culturelogy of politics in the context of Sri
Lanka with the main objective to examine the socio-economic
emergence of politocracy and its impact on bureaucracy to
shape the process of administration. Based on secondary data,
methodology of this study is mainly based on a qualitative
design, although quantitative techniques are widely used to
50

analyze countable phenomena in order to maximize the
rationale of qualitative ends. In conclusion, even though the
politico-administrative dichotomy has been a continues
discussion both in developed and changing societies,
politicization of administration is purely a socio-cultural
phenomenon with strong historical and ideological
background in the process of governance in Sri Lanka.
Key Words: Administration, Bureaucracy, Dichotomy,
Political Culture, Politicization

Introduction
Public Administration is the latest form or the practical part of
the study of politics which emerged at the request made by the
man of the 20th Century. In contrast, Administration came into
sight and evolved parallel to the origin and growth of the state
in which politics and administration co-existed together.
However, separation of administration from politics initially
occurred as a result of the failing of the traditional political
authority to deal successfully with the increasing issues of
governance in the 19th century. Consequently, this made a
particular body of professionals or a team of technical
specialists whose job is to analyze the existing issues, the
decisions to be taken and the policies to be implemented on
the basis of impartiality under legal-rational authority.
However, it doesn’t mean that administration apart from
politics has clear demarcation in which bureaucrats make
decisions purely based on principles of administration, and,
politicians, on the other hand, operates on the ground of
public opinion. In this context, the relationship between
politics and administration becomes increasingly important
and essential component which determines the degree of
politicization in the process of public administration.
51

 

Politico-Administrative Dichotomy
The early and modern writings on the dichotomy of politics
and administration draws a compulsory separation between
politics and administration owing to their distinctive
characteristics in practice. However, there is a clear gap
between classical and modern interpretations as contemporary
explanations deal very closer to the ecological realities.
Classical Interpretations
According to Woodrow Wilson, administrative questions are
not political questions because the field of administration is a
field of business; although politics sets the tasks for
administration, it should not be allowed to manipulate its
office and; therefore, it should be removed from the hurry and
strife of politics (Wilson, 1887). In this sense, Wilson intends
to shield administration from political interference.
Meanwhile, he differentiates politics and administration
suggesting that the broad plans of governmental actions are
not administrative; the detailed execution of such plans is
administrative (Ibid, 1966). However, though Wilson
considered politics and administration as independent, at the
end of his essay, he has somewhat assumed the
interdependency of politics and administration in the decision
making process.
After a while, in the early twentieth century, Max Weber
arrives in the dichotomy of politics and administration and
insists on that administration essentially stay out of politics:
i.e., in the political controversies, public administration should
operate above all impartially and remain politically neutral
(Weber, 1919). Meanwhile, in 1930s the development of the
dichotomy between politics and administration draws a
narrow conception of administration with the theory of
52

scientific management. In this context, the politics administration
dichotomy sought to minimize politics and
administration by prescribing expertise, neutrality and
hierarchy (Demir amd Nyhan, 2008). Therefore,
administrators can play a significant role in policy making.
However, in 1950s, redefining the politics-administration
dichotomy, Paul Appleby claims that drawing a meaningful
institutional distinction between politics and administration is
impossible owing to its undeniable combination (Appleby,
1949). Therefore, Appleby insists on that politics and
administration are completely relative and they should be
treated together.
In the 1980s with the emphasis of the concepts of
deregulation, privatization and decentralization, the
dichotomy returned to the early interpretation of the
separation of politics and administration. Particularly, the
New Public Management movement brought the economic
consideration of administration, which stressed that separation
of political and administrative functions, is more efficient than
integrating them as traditionally had been in most of the
countries (Tahmasebi and Musavi, 2011). Meanwhile, some
authors have attempted to re-conceptualize the classical
interpretation of the politics-administration dichotomy.
Montjoy and Watson suggest two dichotomies as conceptual
and operational – the first is dividing the functions of
government into the expression of a will and the execution of
that will; and the second is a doctrine that the filling of
administrative offices should not be used by candidates to
attract support in the contest for electoral offices (Montjoy
and Watson, 1995).
The Complementarity Model
The dichotomy of politics and administration has been
moderately discussed by J.H Savara with the
53

Complementarity Model, which illustrates the interaction
between politicians and administrators.
Figure 1: The Interaction between Politicians and
Administrators
Source: Savara, J.H. (2001). The Myth of the Dichotomy:
Complementarity of Politics and Administration in
the Past and Future of Public Administration. Public
Administration Review, 61, p. 180.
As shown in Figure 1, the Complementarity Model entails
ongoing interaction, reciprocal influence and mutual
difference between elected officials and administrators. In this
process, administrators help to shape policy and they give it
specific content and meaning in the process of
implementation. Meanwhile, elected officials supervise the
implementation process, pay attention over complaints about
poor performance, and attempt to correct problems for a
maximum output (Savara, 2001). However, despite the slight
Administrator:
level of
independence
Low
Hig
Hig Elected Officials: degree of Low
Political
Complementarity
Administrators are
committed to
accountability and
responsiveness
Political respect,
administrative
competence and
commitment
Bureaucrati
c autonomy
Stalemate or
laissez-fair
54

difference of the explanation, the Complementarity Model
remains largely similar to the early conceptualization of
politico-administrative relationship in which bureaucrats were
considered as experts while politicians represent the demands
of people. Therefore, these early and contemporary
interpretations on politico-administrative correlation of a
political system provide limited understanding over difference
contexts in the empirical world.
Sri Lanka: Politico-Bureaucratic System
As discussed above, the classical and modern
conceptualizations on the dichotomy of politics and
administration provides a conservative outlook to the political
system. More importantly, they do not offer substantial
inspection to understand diverse correlations of the politicoadministrative
affairs in different contexts. Therefore, this
study intends to prove that the relationship between politics
and administration of Sri Lanka cannot be analyzed with the
classical or modern interpretation of the dichotomy of politics
and administration. At this point, owing to the intensity of the
process of politicization which emerged from 1972 onwards,
the politico-administrative relationship in Sri Lanka can be
identified as a politico-bureaucratic system.1 The studies of
Robert Kearney (1973), Wishwa Warnapala (1974), Traecy
Leitan (1979), B.S Wijeweera (1988) and M. Somasundaram
(1997) provide comprehensive analysis on the relationship
between politics and administration in Sri Lanka.
1 This term has used by Somasundram, M. (1997). Public
Administration Change, in: Somasundram, M. (ed.) The Third
Wave: Governance and Public Administration in Sri Lanka. Delhi:
Konark Publishers pp. 20-53.
55

The provisions of the 1931 and 1947 Constitutions made a
neutral relationship between politics and administration in Sri
Lanka. As a result, during these constitutional tenures
impartiality of administration can be seen as the guiding
principle of the bureaucracy. However, the 1972 Constitution
provided constitutional space for politicization of the
bureaucracy which turned the neutrality of politics in
administration into a politically-mobilized bureaucracy. In
this context, Kearney identified two types of developments as
the emerging phenomenon of politicization of the
bureaucracy:
The first is growing tendency for political influences to be
exerted over administrative actions…a second and separate
development in the politicization of bureaucracy is a tendency
for tests of political loyalty to be applied for certain
assignments within the career public service (Kearney, 1973)
According to Kearney, political influence of ministers and
members of the legislature over administrative decisions, and
political loyalty of the bureaucrats for politicians for
promotions and other privileges in the public service can be
identified as main contributory factors of the politicization of
bureaucracy in Sri Lanka.
Meanwhile, provisions of the 1978 Constitution brought a
presidential-cabinet system into operation and intensified the
on-going process of politicization with excessive power of the
executive presidency. Thus, the bureaucrats became
subservient or adherents of the governing elite, and in order to
maximize privileges enjoyed by their position they always
kept seeking opportunities to serve the interests of politicians
in power. As a result, the classical and modern
conceptualizations of the dichotomy of politics and
56

administration became extremely less important in defining
the relationship of politics and administration in Sri Lanka.
In this context, M. Somasundaram has categorically expressed
his views highlighting the politico-administrative correlation
in Sri Lanka as a politico-bureaucratic system:
A politicking context breeds politicking public servants very
much like carrion breeding maggots. Such bureau paths
undermine the head’s authority hoping to replace him,
particularly if the latter were a success. Scheming public
servants could always find scabs in the victim’s agency, in the
expressive vernacular called Runoongaratne’s, those who run
to their star-bosses homes carrying tails. Politicking has
triumphed in Sri Lanka, not merely because of the
assertiveness of politicians, but more insidiously, because of
the connivance and acquiescence of bureau path colleagues
particularly trading on vulnerabilities of weak ministers.
(Somasundaram, 1997).
A politico-bureaucratic system does not emerge itself as a
mere politico-administrative phenomenon without the
significant contribution from some important socio-economic
factors. However, this problem, politicization of the
bureaucracy, has been significantly addressed as a
sociological phenomenon by B.S Wijeweera. According to
Wijeweera, politicization of administration in Sri Lanka was
necessary because, though the social transmission from
feudalism to colonialism brought significant physical changes,
some fundamental values remained as they were in the past;
for example, the power structure of the society which had
been in practice from its very ancient times remained
unchanged except in its content during the British occupation
in Sri Lanka (Wijeweera, 1988:). In this context, this study
57

seeks to examine a rationale for the politicization of
administration in Sri Lanka.
A Socio-Cultural Phenomenon
According to the Elite Theory, the rule of the elite is an
inevitable and unchangeable fact of social existence; the
struggle for power has been confined to a few but organized
groups; one set of them is replaced by another in order to rule
over the unorganized many; therefore, politics is a struggle
among the rule-interested elite; to sum up to a famous dictum:
history is the graveyard of aristocracies (Ibid: 33). Based on
above assumption of the elite theory, Wijeweera draws a
hypothesis on politicization of bureaucracy as a reemergence
of the authority of the ruling elite which had been in practice
in the traditional Sri Lanka (Wijeweera, 1988).
Wijeweera insists that power of the traditional society in Sri
Lanka always functioned within the confines of the ruling
elite (Ibid: 24). However, with the British occupation this
traditional power hierarchy was disturbed; as a result, a series
of conflicts erupted between the traditional local-elite and the
British, sometimes in the forms of rebellion in 1817-18 (Ibid:
25). Although the British responded it with violently, they
identified the importance of the local-elite in socio-political
stability, and granted them with subordinate functions of the
administration in order to assimilate them to the main elite
(Ibid: 25-6). The local-elite enjoyed power as bureaucrats
along with the ruling English-elite under colonial regime in
Sri Lanka. Meanwhile, the Donoughmore reforms acted as a
process of displacement of the bureaucratic elite, replacing
them with a sub-institution of Anglicized political elite as the
new ruling elite; and this process continued with the Soulbury
reforms in which this new ruling elite strongly refused the
existence of rival elite from the local government and
58

barricaded a real devolution of power to the local bodies (Ibid:
28).
In 1956 there was a transfer of political power from one
segment of society to another according to Wijeweera – hence
it was nonetheless but Sinhala-Buddhist nationalism in which
some of guiding ethics can be traced back to the traditional
Sinhalese society in Sri Lanka (Ibid: 24). However, though
some disagreements aroused between the ruling elite and the
bureaucrats in the decision making process, they were soon
resolved with the abolition of the Ceylon Civil Service, and
establishing of Ceylon Administrative Service in 1963.
Moreover, the process of politicization of bureaucracy was
almost completed in the 1970s where two constitutions were
brought into operation respectively in 1972 and 1978. As a
result, political appointees were effortlessly recruited to the
lower, middle and upper levels of the bureaucracy in favor of
the ruling elite in Sri Lanka (Ibid: 30). Therefore, Wijeweera
argues that the characteristics of the existing ruling elite
repeat itself with very little in ancient tradition or the colonial
experience to alleviate it (Ibid: 32).
However, though the process of politicization is identified as a
product of the struggle for power among the elites, this study
assumes that politicization of the bureaucracy is not a mere
sociological occurrence but a socio-cultural phenomenon
generated by the authoritative characteristics of the cultural
set-up in Sri Lanka. To do so, in the first place, it is important
to draw attention on the state of political culture in Sri Lanka.
Conceptually, the term political culture is defined as a set of
attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning
to a political process which provides the underlying
assumptions and rules that govern the behavior in the political
system (IESS, 1968). Hence, it determines political behavior
of the people. However, according to Almond et al. political
59

culture does not explain everything about politics…, nor is
political culture unchangeable…, but cultural norms typically
change slowly and reflect enduring patterns of political action
(Almond et al., 2000). Therefore, political culture is a critical
element in understanding the political set-up of a country. As
Almond et al. explain, when studying the concept of political
culture, it can be categorized into three levels of citizenorientations
in a political system: the political system, the
political and policy-making process and policy outputs and
outcomes.
Table 1: The Aspects of Political Culture
System Process Policy
Pride in nation
Principles of
government
Role of
government
National identity Role of citizens
Government policy
priorities
Legitimacy of
government
Perceptions of
political rights
Source: Almond, G.A, Powell, G.B, Strom, K and Dalton, R.J
(2000). Comparative Politics Today: A World View.
7th ed., New York: Longman. p. 50.
According to the aspects of political culture, the state of a
political system can be measured against and compared with
two or more political systems. For example, in the political
and policy-making process, peoples’ orientation towards
involvement in the political process has been measured as
participatory, subjective and parochial cultures by Almond et
al. as shown in Figure 2.
60

Figure 2: Political Culture by Orientation in the Political
Process
Source: Almond, G.A, Powell, G.B, Strom, K and Dalton, R.J
(2000). Comparative Politics Today: A World View.
7th ed., New York: Longman. p. 52.
According to Figure 2, developed democracies and postcommunist
nations in the first and second columns illustrate
significant differences in the political participation. The level
of participation of the third category, which represents postcommunist
developing countries, shows a slight increase in
comparison to the second category. However, the postcolonial
democratic nations in the fourth category show a
dramatic increase of parochial in comparison to the other
three categories of countries. As Almond et al. define that
parochial are poor and illiterate slum dwellers, peasants or
farm laborers who have little conscious contact with the
Participants Subjects Parochials
61

political system (Almond et al., 2000). For example, the
countries in the African and South Asian regions have
predominantly rural, religious and politically unconscious
populations. In these countries, political participation has
largely confined to business elite and educated professionals.
Consequently, majority of citizens have fewer consensuses on
the importance of democratic objectives, instead they are
highly influenced with religious and ethno-nationalist belief
(Ibid: 52-3).
Therefore, though the political participation of the mass can
be largely seen in the election process, their involvement in
the decision making process during the tenure of government
is extremely limited. As a result, the decision making process
of these countries has been completely subjugated by the
interests of the ruling elite and their subordinate contingents.
However, Almond et al. do not explain how politicians and
the mass maintain their relationship in this gap of decisions
and interests to accomplish competing interests in a
democratic system. It is evident that the ruling elite is fully
aware of the popular content of interests and the most
marketable politico-economic ideology among the uneducated
or undereducated and democratically unconscious rural folk.
Therefore, it is a common phenomenon that many of these
countries have on the one hand a religious and ethnonationalist
project and on the other hand a semi or quasiwelfarelism
along with their national movement. As a result,
the decision making process of these countries is highly
dependent on religious and ethno-nationalist interests and
partly on welfare oriented policies. In a context of ethnoreligious
diversity, policy interests of the majority have
severely disturbed the nation building process of these
countries.
62

In the Sri Lankan context, the experiences are invariably
similar according to the above analysis of political culture and
its function in the decision making process. In other word, the
importance of democratic values is limited or has been
confined in the political participation of Sri Lanka.
Consequently, religious and ethno-nationalist sentiments have
become crucial rather than long-term socio-economic
objectives in the decision making process. Therefore,
authoritative actions are common occurrence instead of
politico-administrative compromises in the decision making
process. For example, the Country has been experiencing a
deep-rooted ethnic problem since its pre-independence period.
To settle the issue by politico-administrative means a number
of devolution packages were proposed from 1950s to 2003,
though none of them has been successful as a constitutional
reform.2 Instead of the devolution efforts to be broaden the
share of the decision making process, a more centralized
politico-administrative structure, which gives priority to the
ethno-nationalist interests of majority, was developed
irrespective of the demands of diversity in Sri Lanka.
Politicization of bureaucracy is not a mere independent
variable as illustrated in the Elite Theory but an outcome of
the political culture in which authoritarianism functions as the
guiding principle of the decision making process in Sri Lanka.
It is a complete subjugation of politics over bureaucratic
rights-to-share in the decision making process. In this context,
intensity of the process of politicization has confined the
2 Although the 13th Amendment had been adapted to the
Constitution which brought the Provincial Council System into
operation under the provisions deprived by the Provincial Council
Act No. 42 of 1987, it remains as most unsuccessful resolution to
address the ethnic problem.
63

decision making process into the ideology of the ruling elite.
Therefore, instances of compromises between politicoadministrative
decisions cannot be seen as opportunities to
stand on behalf of the diverse interests in the decision making
process are not available in the context of Sri Lanka.
Post-Independent Bureaucracy
The post-independent epoch has been the most significant
transition period of the Ceylon Civil Service due to the
pressure of three most dominant factors: first it was the
Soulbury reform which made Ceylon a dominion state; as a
result, the Civil Service became free from the direct control of
the British Empire; secondly, the dominant role of the
majority Sinhalese in the government services which
suppressed the minority grievances and finally, the rise of the
Ceylonization movement, which demanded its strict
application into the Civil and Public Services.
The Soulbury Civil Service
The Soulbury Commission made its recommendations for a
parliament system after a cautious investigation of the
Executive Committee System of the Donoughmore reform.
As a result, a Governor General who represented the Crown
of England, a bicameral Legislature and a system of Cabinet
of Ministers were introduced in 1947. Thus, Ceylon became a
dominion state within the Commonwealth of Nations with the
provisions derived from the Ceylon Independence Act of 1947
and the Ceylon Orders in Council of 1946 and 1947 (Leitan,
1979). Although some constitutional provisions were
introduced to safeguard the politico-administrative rights of
the minority, the Soulbury System did not intend to establish a
representative bureaucracy. However, both politically and
administratively, some significant representative
64

characteristics can be seen in the minority safeguards which
had been architected to draw a more rational decision making
process.
Table 2 shows that the Soulbury System has categorically
focused to address the minority grievances with special
provisions incorporated to the Constitution which could be
broadly classified as legislative, executive and judicial
safeguards.
Table 2: Minority Safeguards in the Soulbury
Constitution
Type Institution Rationale
Legislative
Section 29 (II)
Discriminations against
race and religion
The House of
Representatives
Represent the minority
(06)
The Senate
Represent the minority
(15)
Executive
Delimitation
Commission
The Weightage System
Public Service
Commission
Independent public
service
Judicial
Judicial Service
Commission
Safeguard the minority
rights
Source: Data extracted from Warnapala, W.A.W. (1995).
Civil Service Administration in Ceylon: A Study in
Bureaucratic Adaptation. Colombo: University of Sri
Jayewardenepura. pp. 168-71.
The political representation of the minority was facilitated by
appointing six nominees for the House of Representatives and
one-half for the Senate by the Governor General in his
discretionary capacity. Moreover, a system of weightage was
65

adopted for the demarcation of electorates in order to
guarantee an adequate representation for the minority.
Meanwhile, a public service commission was introduced as an
independent body against discriminations on the basis of race
and religion, and to discharge the function of recruitments,
promotions and disciplinary control of the Public Services.
It is evident that a maximum effort had been made in
legislative, executive and judicial means to safeguard the
minority rights. However, among these minority safeguards
the Public Service Commission played a key role in
recruitment, promotion and disciplinary control of the public
servants. It was to consist of three persons and one of whom
should be the chairman as provisioned by the Soulboury
Constitution. The first two chairmen were an Englishman and
a Ceylonese Burgher, and they were succeeded by two Tamil
chairmen appointed to the office in 1948 and 1949
(Warnapala, 1995). Throughout this period some Sinhalese
chairmen were chosen; however, the Commission was able to
maintain a reasonable ethnic balance in the Commission and
the Public Service and prevented the criticism of ethnic
partiality to the Sinhalese community (Ibid). Therefore, at the
beginning, the Public Service Commission played an
impartial role in every purpose of the administrative process;
however, it changed dramatically with the political
transformation of 1950s.
Crisis in the Bureaucracy
The Civil Service was the last stronghold of the Englisheducated
elite whose engagement came into conflict with the
new political leadership that was elected in the 1956 election.
The suppressed Sinhalese-Buddhist interests of the colonial
Ceylon phenomenally emerged under the leadership of
S.W.R.D Bandaranayke who led the Peoples United Front
66

after the victory in 1956. As a result, of the unparalleled
popularity and enchanting promises, the ethno-nationalist
movement at any cost was impossible prevent form its way
forward. Due to the enthusiastic and influential engaging in
politics of the rural Sinhala-Buddhist folk, the political parties
made their way to reshape the party manifestation in favor of
the public choice. For example, in the official-language issue,
the United National Party from the very beginning stood for
‘equality in all matters’ but later changed its policy to ‘Sinhala
only’ (Warnapala, 1995). At the same time, the party accepted
the ‘priority to Buddhism’ under pressure came from the
Buddhist extremists and the Peoples United Front.
The ‘Sinhala only’ bill was passed in June 1956 and, as a
result, the Tamils-led political parties began to protest and
demanded equal status for Tamils. In order to find a solution
for the Sinhalese-Tamil unrest, Primer Bandaranayake with
the collaboration of S.J.V Chelvanayakam, proposed a
devolution package which was later known as Bandaranayke-
Chelvanayakam Pact in 1958. However, due to pressure came
from the Sinhala-Buddhist activists, particularly, the language
enthusiasts and Buddhist clergy, the Prime Minister himself
abolished the agreement (Ibid). As a result, in May 1958 a
severe communal unrest spread all over the country. In order
to restore law and order, the state of emergency was imposed
on May 27, 1958 and those who were responsible for the
dispute, including the Federal Party, were proscribed (Ibid).
As result, of the strong protest led by the opposition parties,
the Government elevated the state of emergency. However,
with the change of the political climate, the ruling party
erupted over the dispute aroused between the right and the left
wings. Premier Bandaranayke was unable to mitigate the
growing ethno-cultural and political disorder and in the midst
of this upheaval, he was assassinated.
67

The assassination of the Prime Minister and its immediate
aftermath left the country in turmoil where a three-pronged
conflict surfaced in the socio-political context of the country:
the Sinhalese-Buddhist chauvinism, the Tamil protest and the
Right-Left contradiction (Ibid). Consequently, the Civil
Service confronted a number of difficulties and disturbances
owing to the political instability and the growth of the
function of the Government departments which caused a
shortage of the Civil Service personnel (Ibid). Meanwhile,
with the changes of the recruitment policy for the first time,
candidates were allowed to sit for the Civil Service Entrance
Examination in the official language. However, the problem
of course-curriculum and shortage of facilities called for a
constructive output from the appointed personnel. As a result,
the Wilmot Perera Commission, which was appointed to
review the existing Civil Service frame work, stated that it
could hardly be expected to make any impact on the problem
of training in the immediate future (Ibid). The core of these
problematic surroundings was mainly the lack of direction and
corporation of the political authority for the Civil Service
which later became an employability-hub of the political
patronage.
The Official Language Act or the ‘Sinhala Only’ policy made
a severe impact on the Civil Service and completely
deteriorated the existing representative nature of the
bureaucracy. Particularly, the pressure applied to displace the
medium of public affairs from English to Sinhala utterly
discouraged the English-educated bureaucrats, resulting in
their formation of several associations which, in turn, led to
the emergence of rival factions in the Civil Service and these
dissatisfied parties later engaged in the trade union movement.
However, even after five years of the language regulations
more than 50 per cent of the bureaucracy was not proficient in
Sinhalese (Warnapala, 1995). In this context, three significant
68

developments can be perceived: first, the ethnic composition
of the public services was transformed in favor of the
Sinhalese community; secondly the bureaucracy extensively
engaged in the trade union movement; and finally a gradual
decrease of the gap between the bureaucracy and the society
appeared in the process of adaptation.
The aftermath was inevitable, politicization of the public
services which enforced rigorous control over the
bureaucracy. Meanwhile, the Public Service Commission was
also manipulated by appointing its members with a greater
weightage to the political will of the governing party. For
example, both parties the United National Party and the Sri
Lanka Freedom Party made their appointments to the
Commission on the basis of political patronage (Ibid).
However, the minority representation in the Commission was
not completely ignored; yet impartiality and trustworthiness
of the Commission were largely disturbed with the growth of
political interference.
Politicization of the Public Service
The incompatible socio-cultural orientations and intentions
between the politicians whose stand for ethno-religious
interests of the majority, and the bureaucracy which
flourished on colonial-English tradition, turned into a conflict
in the 1950s. As a result, the Government held a strong
hostility against the bureaucracy accusing it as an elite which
is not bothered by aspirations of the people, and condemned it
as the major obstacle to realize their socio-economic programs
prepared for the people. Although the Civil Service
progressively involved in implementing the development
programs, the government took measures to modernize the
bureaucracy. According to Wijeweera who studied the
transition of the Ceylon Civil Service, the modernization
69

process as it was demanded by the changes of 1956 was a
painful but an unavoidable process; more clearly, it was
transformation of roles from that of a law-and-order
bureaucracy to an engine of social and economic change
(Wijeweera, 1988).
The advancement of 1956 did not entrench much further with
the assassination of Bandaranayke in 1959. However, its
ideological awakening continually influenced the sociopolitical
setup of the country. Even with a growing reluctance
towards the bureaucracy, the Government did not approach to
politicize the Civil Service at the beginning; instead they
continued the Ceylonization process. For example, in 1963
two structural changes were introduced to the administrative
system: the abolition of the Ceylon Civil Service by
establishing the Ceylon Administrative Service and the
replacement of the Village Headman system into the
Gramaniladari system.
First Republic Constitution (1972)
Politicization of the Public Service categorically appeared
with the introduction of the first Republic Constitution in
1972. It was undoubtedly a turning point of the political and
constitutional history of Sri Lanka. Because, it was
completely a locally-drafted Constitution, and on the other
hand, it terminated the compromises imposed under the
Soulbury Constitution. More importantly, it made the Country
a free, sovereign and independent republic. Although the 1972
constitution had been primarily designed following the
Westminster Model, it differs from the basic characteristics of
a Cabinet system in several aspects. However, this study does
not intend to discuss features of the constitution extensively
but its impact in terms of exercising the Civil Service
administration of the Country.
70

The Cabinet of Ministers was provisioned to exercise the
appointment, dismissal and disciplinary control over the
public officers as declared by Article 117 of the Constitution.
This was a decisive provision which had never been witnessed
before and it deeply eroded the impartiality at every aspect of
the Civil Service process. The Board of Ministers should
discharge this power under the recommendations of the Public
Service Advisory Board (PSAB) and the Public Service
Disciplinary Board (PSDB) established under Articles 111
and 112 of the Constitution. Meanwhile, the members of the
PSAB and the PSDB were appointed by the President
following the recommendations of the Prime Minister. In this
context, the PSAB and the PSDB indirectly facilitated the
political-preferences of the Government in which the
patronage-appointments were systematically introduced to the
Civil Service.
The process of politicization in the next phase inexorably
reached its culmination as the political elite completely
subjugated the bureaucracy with the reforms which provided
greater peoples’ participation in the administration. The
United Front Government with a strong majority in
Parliament turned to establish Workers’ Councils and
Advisory Committees in the Government Departments and
the Public Enterprises on the basis of an elective principle
which nominated loyalists in order to preserve their individual
party identities (Wijeweera, 1988). Moreover, a system of
People’s Committee was established for each ward of a local
authority in order to obtain people’s contribution at the level
of formulation, implementation and evaluation of
development programs on the ground of more responsive
administration to the needs of the Country and wishes of the
people. Meanwhile, the Chairman and the Members of these
Committees were appointed by the Minister in consultation
with the Member of Parliament of the area and the function of
71

the Committees were confined to offer ‘criticisms and advise’
on the administrative process (Ibid). The Chairmen and the
Members of these Committees were active supporters of then
the United Front Government. However, these institutions did
not intend to absorb the authority of the administrative
machinery, instead it was argued as a necessary step to
transform the administration machinery to a more democratic
process.
Furthermore, the politicization process appeared in the
decentralized administration aiming to make a more
democratic and development-consensus administration.
Consequently, the Divisional Development Councils (DDCs)
were established in 1971 as a primordial step to address the
development objectives in a broad context, particularly, to lay
the foundation for small-scale industries and to increase
employment opportunities in the rural sector. The DDCs were
operated under the chairmanship of the Divisional Revenue
Officers with a wide membership of officials and non-officials
including the Member of Parliament of the area;
consequently, hundreds of projects were introduced but none
of them was free from the problems of expertise, management
and marketing (Wijeweera, 1988). Among those, the worst
experience was politicization of the development activities of
the DDCs.
The politicization process again reached until peripheral part
of the Country in 1973 with the introduction of the District
Political Authority system (DPA) and the Decentralized
Budget system (DCB). In this sense, it was compulsory that
the regional-level administration should be under the control
of the political authority, similarly with the national-level
administration. On the other hand, the Food Production Drive
in response to the food crisis and the state of emergency
intensified the need of corporation between the politics and
72

the administration. Consequently, the DPA system was
introduced to mobilize and direct the people and institutions
in the district and, it was categorically stated that the
administration should serve the political authority by
coordinating the activities of the Public Service (Wijeweera,
1988). Therefore, the district administration was thoroughly
subjugated to the control of the DPA system in which an
appointed political-head of the district became officer-incharge
on behalf of the Government. Moreover, despite the
provisions of the national-budget in terms of regional
development, the DCB system was introduced at the same
time to facilitate the DPA system.
In this context the United Front Government introduced a
comprehensive line-up of politicization to the Civil Service
which inescapably chained the Civil Service practices into
political consent of the Government. In a sense, it was purely
a way forward for a more democratic process and, on the
other hand, it was strongly criticized as an unavoidable result
of internal suspicion of the coalition government which
thwarted the Civil Service from its professional-origin to
handymen of the political authority. However, as the
politicization process goes ahead at every step, it obliterated
the substance of a system of representative bureaucracy and in
the next step, the 1978 Constitution brought the same result
but in a different structure.
Second Republic Constitution (1978)
The 1978 Constitution provides basis for a Semi-Presidential
Government as it shares many features of Cabinet and
Presidential systems. More clearly, it is an Executive
Presidential-Cabinet system in which the President is vested
with executive powers with a Cabinet of Ministers headed by
a Prime Minister. The system, particularly in practice, is much
73

similar to a presidential system; however, it was different
from the ideals of Semi-Presidential and Presidential systems
in France and the United States; here, the President largely
exercises legislative, executive and judicial powers. In this
context, the President is the Commander-in-Chief in every
aspect of politico-administrative decision making. Particularly
as the direct selection of the people and the head of ruling
party, the President gives more priority to political offers than
to the due process of the administration. Therefore, the
importance of representative bureaucracy in a context of
Executive Presidential-Cabinet system has been largely
restricted by political aspirations of the President.
The Article 30 (1) of the Constitution proclaims that the
President is the Head of the State, the Executive and the
Government, and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed
Forces. Furthermore, Article 30 (2) states that the President is
directly elected by the people and holds office for a term of
six years. Though his tenure is confined for two consecutive
terms by article 31 (2), the Eighteenth Amendment to the
Constitution removed the expressed limit for re-election.
Moreover, powers of the President are not subjected to check
and balances by the Legislature or the Judiciary. The only
method to confine his authority is preceding an impeachment
on the provisions of Article 38 (2) (a) and (b). However, due
to practical difficulties the impeachment process, it is not
powerful enough to control the power of the President.
The President is the head of the Executive and the Cabinet of
Ministers and according to the Article 42, though not a
Member of Parliament, he is accountable to it in terms of
exercising executive powers. In this context, the Cabinet of
Ministers should be responsible to Parliament on behalf of
discharging the executive powers of the President. Thus,
though the President holds the executive powers, he is not
74

accountable to the Legislature but the Cabinet of Ministers on
behalf of him. As a result, Parliament has become a subinstitution
which stands for executive decision of the
President. Moreover, though the system of proportional
representation encouraged the bargaining power in a context
of multi-party system, the present cross-over system has
dramatically improved power of the governing, party
particularly, of the President.3
The excessive power of the President as the head of the state
and the government has made the Public Service an
instrument of the President which carries out his political-will.
Particularly, according to Article 54 of the Constitution, the
President appoints all public offices required by the
Constitution or other written laws. Moreover, with the
provisions of Article 55 (1), though the power for
appointments, transfers, dismissals and disciplinary controls
of public officers are vested with the Cabinet of Ministers,
Article 55 (3) states that they are obliged to follow the
recommendation of the Public Service Commission.
Meanwhile, Article 56 (1) proclaims that the Public Service
Commission is appointed by the President. However, it is
obvious that despite the choices of the Cabinet of Ministers,
the President can directly consume the power of the Public
Service because Article 44 (1) grants him the power to
appoint the Cabinet of Ministers which determines the
political-future of candidates.
3 This has been adopted as per judicial decision in 2002 which
justified cross-over of members of Parliament as a form of the
democratic process irrespective to the basic principles of
proportional representation.
75

The Constitutions and Amendments
Therefore, it is needless to say that the President deeply
influences every phase of administration which intensifies the
extent of politicization of the Public Service. However, in
order to make a constrictive limit on the power of the
President over the Public Service, the Seventeenth
Amendment to the Constitution was introduced in 2001.
According to the Amendment, a Constitutional Council
should be appointed to recommend suitable candidates for the
selected commissions and offices, including the Public
Service Commission.4 Nevertheless, due to political
discrepancies a problem encountered on the appointments for
the Constitutional Council, and as a result, the amendment
became unsuccessful following the introduction of the
Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution in 2010. It
replaced every autonomous attempts of the Seventeenth
Amendment by appointing a Parliamentary Commission
similar to the prior amendment, but with direct nominees from
the ruling party who directly represent the political aspirations
of the President.5
4 The Constitutional Council comprises with the Prime Minister, the
Speaker, the Leader of the Opposition in Parliament, one person
appointed by the President, five person appointed by the President
on the nomination of both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the
Opposition; and one person nominated upon agreement by the
majority of the Members of Parliament belonging to political parties
or independent groups other than the respective political parties or
independent groups to which the Prime Minister and the Leader of
the Opposition belongs and appointed by the President.
5 The Parliamentary Council comprises with the Prime Minister, the
Speaker, the Leader of the Opposition, a nominee of the Prime
76

It is evident that the Constitution has granted excessive power
for the President to exercise functions at the office without
checks and balances of any government institution. As a
result, the President can influence every step of the politico administrative
decision making in favor of his political
thought as the head of the ruling party and the government.
Therefore, it is obvious that the 1978 Constitution has
dramatically intensified the process of politicization in
comparison to the attempts made in the 1950s, 1960s and
1972.
Even though attempts towards democracy through a
movement of depoliticization was continuously unsuccessful
over decades since the introduction of the constitution, its
remarkable development appeared in a form of civil-political
parade by criticizing President Rajapaksha’s means of
government with his second tenure for the office in 2010.
With the defeat of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) in 2009 who forted nearly thirty years for a separate
Tamil homeland in North-east Sri Lanka, President
Rajapaksha successfully gained wide range of support from
Sinhalese-Buddhists chauvinists for his second victory and
prepared for third round in 2015 following the provisions of
18th amendment to the Constitution. However, rapidly
increasing criticism against curtail of democracy and
nepotistic and corniest move in the administration turned to a
civil-political protest which defeated the Government in the
forthcoming election in 2015.
The new Government, as promised in the election, introduced
19th Amendment to the Constitution with the aim to
Minister, who shall be a Member of Parliament; and a nominee of
the Leader of the Opposition, who shall be a Member of Parliament.
77

depoliticize the decision making process and ensure
democratic standards in the government. The amendment
brought three major revision to the Constitution by insertion
rights to information, curtailing powers of president while
strengthening the state of legislature and establishing a
constitutional council as follows:
1. The rights to information amends Article 14 (1) (a) of
the Constitution which provisions freedom of speech
and expression including publication by adding access
to information on governmental and semigovernmental
data.6
2. Powers of the President has been repealed under
Article 30 (1) as the President of Republic and (2) his
tenure in the office reducing from six to term of five
years; and Article 31 (2) disqualified person who has
been twice elected to the office of President to be
reelected.7
3. Article 41 A (1) provisions for a Constitutional
Council 8 to appoint the members of nine independent
6 19th Amendment to the Constitution, p. 2.
7 19th Amendment to the Constitution, p. 3.
8 The Constitutional Council comprises with the Prime Minister, the
Speaker, the Leader of the Opposition in Parliament, one person
appointed by the President, five person appointed by the President
on the nomination of both the Prime Minister and the Leader of the
Opposition (only two of them should be the members of
parliament); and one person nominated upon agreement by the
majority of the Members of Parliament belonging to political parties
or independent groups other than the respective political parties or
78

commissions 9 and eight higher offices 10 in order to
ensure the principles of impartiality and
inclusiveness.
Even though these provisions show a great capacity in
addressing the issues such as problem of information,
excessive powers of the President and politicization, nearly
three years from its inception in May 2015 do not show a
considerable development in the affairs of politics and
administrative discretion. For example, practicability of rights
to information as a new endowment to the list of fundamental
rights in the Constitution has been highly questioned due to
the problem of availability of information for the public in
governmental and semi-governmental institutions. On the
other hand, President as the head of the state and the
government and leader of the party with the majority seats in
independent groups to which the Prime Minister and the Leader of
the Opposition belongs and appointed by the President.
9 (a) The Election Commission (b) The Public Service Commission
(c) The National Police Commission (d) The Audit Service
Commission (e) The Human Rights Commission of Sri Lanka (f)
The Commission to Investigate Allegations of Bribery or Corruption
(g) The Finance Commission (h) The Delimitation Commission (i)
The National Procurement Commission.
10 Schedule I: (a) The Chief Justice and the Judges of the Supreme
Court (b) The President and the Judges of the Court of Appeal (c)
The Members of the Judicial Service Commission, other than the
Chairman; Schedule II: (a) The Attorney-General (b) The Auditor-
General (c) The Inspector-General of Police (d) The Parliamentary
Commissioner for Administration (Ombudsman) (e) The Secretary-
General of Parliament.
79

Parliament can influence to carry out his will in the legislature
while consuming the powers of office as the chef of executive
branch. However, appointments of the President to the
independent commissions through the Constitutional Councils
have been commendably systematic due to pressure of
statutory requirements and other internal and external sources.

Conclusion
This article discusses the politico-administrative dichotomy
following the interpretation of classical and modern literature,
and analyzes its advancement in the political culture and
impact in the process of politicization of public administration
in the Country. The early theorist such as Wilson, Weber,
Savara etc., provide mere understanding on the conceptual
difference between elected officials and administrators.
However, these discussions have been significantly helpful to
draw a conceptual outline when it comes to analyze a
particular context such as Sri Lanka. In this sense, according
to the analysts of politico-administrative dichotomy and
political culture, it can be interpreted as a socio-cultural
phenomenon in which politicization of bureaucracy operates
as a reemergence of the authority of the ruling elite which had
been in practice in the traditional Sri Lanka. This is proven in
the post-colonial politico-administrative relations in the
Country in which constitutional provisions have been
significantly contributed to politicize the process of public
administration.
80

References
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Kearney, R.N. (1973). The Politics of Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
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82

 

Conflict Management Strategies: A Case of Igbo
Language
BY
Oparah, Chinwendu E.
Department Of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education Owerri
Abstract
The study aimed at examining the role of Igbo Language in
conflict management. Igbo Language is a language spoken by
the Igbo and it is means of communication by the Igbos which
can be verbal or non-verbal. The study specifically assessed
the extent to which arbitration, third party, sanction and
dialogue can be used in conflict management and resolution.
The purpose of this study is to find out how these strategies
for conflict management can play a key role in conflict
resolution. The study will encourage people in a way to
manage conflict in order to achieve better or conflict free
society. In carrying out this study the researcher adopted a
survey research method together with existing literature to
widen the horizon of the researcher. Findings showed that
arbitration, third party, dialogue were adopted to resolve
conflict while sanction is used to some extent in conflict
resolution. The study goes further to show that early
interaction to the root of the conflict and use of dialogue in
solving problems is very necessary in conflict management
and resolution. Based on the findings, some recommendations
and conclusion were made.
83

Introduction
Language is a means by which people interact and
relate with one another and it is the most important tool for
communication of thoughts, ideas and feelings. According to
Akidi (2012) the most important thing about language is its
meaningfulness to those that use it and it must be understood
by the people that have the language.
Every language is important to those that use it and
the society at large. For Akidi (2012:213), “Language is the
key to the heart of the people” that is why Eva (1965) in Akidi
(2012:213) stated that “We should hold the key tight by
nurturing, grooming and accepting positive changes in
language” in order to push our language in a greater level.
Language is valued depending on how the society
speaks it, because it is the integral part of the society and
every language has element that will enable it to perform its
communicative function (Ndimele, 2005). Language whether
oral or written is used in communication and that is its basic
function. More importantly, it is used to transfer information
from one generation to another as well as educating people to
the good use of language.
The use of language is being affected by norms and
values of a given society that own the language. That is why
Romaine (1994) in Ndimele (2005:214) states that:
society impinges on language in various
ways: In fact, the very existence of language
critically depends on the availability of a
social group who claim a variety as their own
and maintain its distinctiveness from the
variety spoken by their neighbours.
As a matter of fact, without society there will not be a
language, vice versa. The two, language and the society,
complement each other in terms of its existence.
84

Igbo Language:
Nigeria is a multilingual and multicultural nation
where different languages exist, of which Igbo language is
one of them. Among all these languages only few – Hausa,
Igbo and Yoruba have a standard orthographies, while some
other languages in Nigeria have not been standardized, no
literature and no standard varieties but despite all these, the
language still performs its basic function in communication.
Igbo Language is mostly transmitted orally because of
the literacy of the rural dwellers. According to Ndimele
(2005:213-214):
Most rural dwellers do not have access to any
other channel of information other than the
face-to-face interactions between the sender
and receiver of the information. The rural
populace receive most of the information in
local/indigenous language because the aim of
giving out the information would have been
defeated if the receiver could not decode the
message due to language barriers.
Interaction in Igbo language is governed by a stable
pattern which anchored on the values which includes respect
for the rules and regulations that exist within a cultural
context. Interaction with one another can lead to harmony,
such like domination, cooperation, competition, hostility,
unnecessary tension, disrespect to accepted norms and values
and envy comes into play (Okolo, 2011). Whereas Igbo
language inculcates the right values, and this right values can
help the society where there is absence of conflict.
Language derives its vitality from the society that
uses it and wrong use or misinterpretation of language can
influence the people negatively. For instance, “I puta kochie
uzo” can mean when you come out you lock the door or when
you come out you swell up the door. “Ihu mma ochie” can
85

mean familiar face or look like an old knife. These
misinterpretations can occur when the intended meaning is
distorted due to misunderstanding in the use of language and
the aim of given the information would have been defeated.
All these expressions can cause conflict when it is wrongly
interpreted.
Although, some words provide a fertile ground for
conflict when referred to people, such words are: Onye
iberibe, Onye ohi, Onye ara, Onye arabanko, Onye ufuobi,
Onye akwuna, Onye anyaukwu, Onye ofuogiri, Onye ojoo ,
Onye gharagharagworogworo, Onye aghogho etc.
Apart from peoples reaction to these words when
spoken, the use of these words should not be ignored
notwithstanding, although it is highly provocative and have
destructive manifestation which may lead to conflict. Ndimele
(2005) observed that it is sacrilegious for anybody to use a
word or words the society regards as derogatory and a taboo.
Igbo language inculcates the right code of conduct in
the use of words especially with regard to respect one another,
for instance:
– hu nwanne gi n’anya
– onye aghala nwanne ya
– uto bu elecha aghara
– asu nwanne anaghi abula ya elu
– iwe nwanne anaghi eru n’okpukpo
– anya bewe imi bewe
– nwanne di na mba
– igwe bu ike
– onye riwe ya cheta nwanne ya, etc.
These words or phrases cannot express anger when
used instead it expresses the culture of the people, which is
the right code in addressing issues. Ihezuonu (2014:127)
asserts that “It is language that provides the available ideas
and categories with which we think and we act.”
86

An Igbo man believes that “Olu oma ka ejula ji a ga
n’ogwu, Olu oma na-eme ka onuma juru” etc. With this there
will be peace, security and development in our various
communities.
Conflict Management Strategies
Conflict according to Ihezuonu (2014:130) … is
defined as disagreement through which the parties involved
precise a threat to their needs, interest or concerns.” Okolo
(2011) in Oparah and Akpu (2017) noted that conflict is a
social act which can bring positive or negative change and
may have creative and destructive manifestation. Conflict can
be any unhealthy situation that can disrupt the peace of the
people and it can lead to struggle among the parties
concerned. These unhealthy situation in the community can
arise when the Eze or Igwe ruling the community could no
longer perform certain duties creditably and do not accept
people’s opinions. Such may be in the provision of necessary
amenities which will lead to confusion, tension and unhealthy
environment in the community as a result of different interest
groups and the society will be in anarchy and disunity
Management according to (internet source) is the
process of dealing with people or controlling things, which
can be an organization or government body. It can also
include the activities of setting the strategy for coordinating
the efforts of the employers in order to accomplish the
objectives or the set goals with the available resources.
Management as it concerns this article is a process through
which people can be controlled to avoid the escalation of
conflict or a way through which conflict can be resolved.
When conflict emerges, the next step is how to
manage and resolve it for the community to live in harmony.
The management approach for resolving conflict includes
arbitration, third party, dialogue and sanction in communities.
87

Arbitration
According to Ezegbe (1997) in Nwafukwa (2011:81)
arbitration is the process by which a peacemaker, arbitrator or
a peace panel settle problem that arises in the community
through appealing to the people in question. In this case other
people can be invited in order to resolve the conflict. The
conflict can be between the Eze and his cabinets, between
Eze’s cabinet and the village heads or even between the
members in the community. The peacemaker can be a selected
committee from the community, clergymen, government
officials, etc. In this case polite speeches such as “asu nwanne
anaghi abuli ya elu”, Iwe nwanne anaghi eru n’okpukpu” are
used to resolve conflicts in the communities.
Third Party
Third party according to Ejiogu (1990)in Nwafukwa
(2011) is when the people in conflict cannot resolve the
problem by themselves. For instance, conflict between two
brothers, father and child, Eze and some members of the
community, then, the eldest or their spiritual director could be
the third person to resolve the issues.
Dialogue
According to Ezegbe (1997) in Nwafukwa (2011)
dialogue involves bringing the individuals together in face-toface
contact in order to enable them expose and discuss the
problem before other people. In this case they are allowed to
air their mind, discuss the factors, issues and problem that led
to conflict. This is to air their views to avoid bearing grudges
or feeling cheated at the end.
Sanction
According to Nwafukwa (2011), sanction can be in
form of expedition or suspension. In this case a member of a
community can be asked to step down in order to give another
person his or her position to resolve conflict. In case of
88

suspension, the Eze or the village heads can disassociate a
member of the community or in some cases may be asked to
pay fine for their wrong doings in order to discipline and stop
them from causing problems in the society.

Conclusion
Conclusively, conflict is inevitable in every
community and members of a community should be educated
on appropriate use of Igbo language to avoid escalation of
conflict. According to Oparah and Akpu (2017:104) “People
should be consciousin the use of language in order not to
cause confusion or abuse on language since abuse on
language is an abuse on culture of the people.” Therefore,
there is great need for communities to adopt these conflict
resolution strategies to ensure peaceful coexistence when
conflict arises in the communities. They should manage and
resolve it through the use of one of the followings arbitration,
third party, sanction and dialogue.

Recommendations
Based on the discussion carried out on the strategies
for conflict management strategies, the researcher therefore
recommends that:
 Village heads should involve the youths in resolving
conflict. This will help our youths to learn the culture
of the people early enough in their growth.
 Seminars and workshops should be organized by the
government to create massive awareness on the need
for peace in the communities.
 People should welcome the use of arbitration, third
party, sanction and dialogue for the management of
conflict in the communities.
 Parents and community leaders should ensure that
peace reigns in communities and as much as possible
89
avoid conflict because no community strives well in a
situation that is filled with anarchy.

References
Akidi, F.C. (2012): The Igbo Language and its characteristics.
In Ojo an International Journal of Igbo, African and
Asian Studies, NnamdiAzikiwe University.
Ejiogu, A. M. (1990). Education management: a system
Approach. Lagos: Lantan Books, Literamed.
Eva Enghlo, (1965). Education through English Language
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Ezegbe, C. (1997). Management of conflict in Nigerian
Education System. In A. N. Ndu, L. O. Ocho and B.
S. Okeke (eds). Dynamics of Educational
Administration and Management: The Nigerian
perspective. Akwa: Meks Publishers.
Ihezuonu, G.C. (2012): Language: An instrument for conflict
resolution for sustainable peace, security and
development. In Ideal International Journal of Igbo
Scholars Forum, Nigeria.
Ndimele, R.I. (2005): Use of Igbo Information Dissemination
in the Igbo Community of Practice. In Globalization
and the study of languages in Africa; Port Harcourt
Grand Obit Communication and Emhai Press.
90

Nwafukwa, P.O. (2011): Conflict Management Strategies for
quality Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme
in Ebonyi State Secondary Schools. In Quality
Assurance Mechanism in Nigeria Education: The
Nigerian Academy of Education; Proceedings of the
26th Congress of the Nigerian Academy of Education.
Okolo, A.N. (2011): Conflict Resolution as a tool for
promoting social stability in the South-East
Geopolitical zone of Nigeria. In JONAED Volume 7,
No. 1.
Oparah, C.E. and Akpu, I.L. (2017): The Role of Language
and Culture in Conflict Resolution. In Nka – A
Journal of the Arts; A Publication of the School of
Arts, AlvanIkoku Federal College of Education,
Owerri, Nigeria.
Romaine, D. (1994). Language in Society. New York: Oxford
University Press.
91

 

Compounding As a Morphological Process in Igbo in
Respect to the Concept of Endocentric and Exocentric
within the Compounds
BY
Okwara, Uchenna Stella
Department of Nigerian Languages and Linguistics
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
ucheobi81@gmail.com 08033565176
&
Olachi Florence Okere
Department of Linguistics & Nigerian Languages,
Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri
olaedo1976@gmail.com 08038002552
Introduction
A morphological process is a means of changing a stem to
adjust its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational
context, morphological processes serve different functions.
Some occur to alter meaning and/or part of speech
(derivational) others shows grammatical relationship between
words (inflectional). There are various types of processes but
the principal’s source of word formation in Igbo is
compounding.
Compounding, which is also refers to as composition
is the morphological process that has been variously defined
as the combination of two or more lexemes. It is also a part of
derivational morphology that is universally recognized and
commonly used for enlarging the vocabulary of any language
(Fromkin Redman and Hyams 2011). In discussing
compounds, a distinction is usually drawn between
92

endocentric and exocentric compounds. For Booij (2005)
compounds have a binary structure. That is a compound
consists of a combination of two words in which one word
modifies the meaning of the other.
Compounding: An overview
Compounding is a morphological process in which
two or more words are joined to make one longer word. In
Linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of
more than one stem. According to Ndimele (2015: 70),
“Compounding is a process of joining two or more formerly
independent roots to form a single word”. For slay and Jindas
(2010) compounds are formed by joining two or more bases.
They further opine that those bases are in some cases,
separated by a hyphen, while in other cases, the hyphen
appears to have disappeared with the passage of time. There is
no rule governing the presence or absence of the hyphen, Yule
(2010:55), says that compounding is a joining of two separate
words to produce a single form. Bauer (2003) in his own
definition, says that, compounding is the creation of a new
lexeme by combining two or more already existing lexemes.
In other words, compounding is a process of
combining two bases to form a complex word. The meaning
of compounds cannot be predicted from the meaning of their
individual morphemes. The words: greenhouse, team
manager, truck-driver are cases in point. Compounding is
complex words created by concatenation, i.e by linking
together base and affix as in a chain. Compound words are
formed when two or more words are put together to form a
new word with a new meaning. They can function as different
parts of speech, which can dictate what form the compound
takes on. For example, the word carry over is an open
compound word when its used as a verb but it is closed when
used as a noun and an adjective. This surplus will carry over
93

to next season. The extra supplies were part of the carryover
from the budget.
Categories of Compound Words
Compound words fall within three categories. Here
are the three types of compound words with an explanation
and examples of each.
Closed Compound Words are formed when two unique
words are joined together, they don’t have a space between
them and they are the type that generally comes to mind when
we think of compound words for example.
English Igbo
Cannot baseball nwaada (eldest daughter)
Elsewhere grandmother nwanne (brother/sister)
Anybody sometimes ụmụazị (children)
Inside upside ụmụnna (half-brother)
nwadiala (son of the soil)
dinta (hunter)
Hyphenated Compound words are connected by a hyphen.
To avoid confusion modifying compounds are often
hyphenated, especially when the precede a noun examples:
Mary-go-round
Mother-in-law
Well-being
Part-time
Open compound words have a space between the words but
when they are read together a new meaning is formed.
Examples:
94

English Igbo
Ice cream post office isi ewu
Full moon middle class aka nri
Real estate anụ ezi
ụlọ ọgwụ
nwa nnụnụ
akwa oche
aka ekpe
ụmụ agbọghọ
Compounds are classified into various semantic types (Bauer
.L.2001, Besetto and Scalise 2005, Bloomfield 1933, Spencer
1992, Booij 2005, etc). They include:
• Endocentric
• Exocentric (also bahuvrihi)
• Copulative (also dvandva)
• Appositional.
Endocentric Compound
An endocentric compound consists, a head, i.e the
categorical part that contains the basic meaning of the whole
compound, and modifiers, which restrict this meaning. In
other words a compound is said to be endocentric when the
second component is the grammatical headword and the first
word becomes the modifier. Endocentric compounds are
hyponyms. E.g., the English compound doghouse, wristwatch,
where house and watch are the head and dog and wrist are the
modifiers. Endocentric compounds tends to be of the same
part of speech (word class) as their head, as in the case of
doghouse, wristwatch! This implies that the language differ
with regards to the position of the head in compound words.
Germanic languages are characterized by right heads (Booij
2005) while maori, a Polynesian language a cost — headed.
and Tiachichilco Tepehua a Totonacan language seem to have
both left and right head compounds.
95
Exocentric Compound
An exocentric compound is a compound construction that
lacks a head word: that is the construction as a whole is not
grammatically and or semantically equivalent to either of its
parts. “It is also called a headless compound. An exocentric
compound is a hyponym of some unexpected semantic
category (such as a person, plant, or animal). None. (neither)
of its compounds can be perceived as a formal head, and its
meaning often cannot be transparently guessed from its
constituent parts. For instance, the English compound whitecollar
is neither a kind of collar nor a white thing. Scapegoat
not referring to a kind of goat rather, a kind of person, a
pickpocket is not a type of pocket but someone who picks
things from pockets.
Copulative Compounds
Copulative compounds are joining together two semantic
heads in other words copulative compounds are compounds
with two semantic heads. In copulative compounds name
separate components which one is neither a hyponym of the
other nor being the grammatical headword. E.g., names like
slater-walker etc. (see Osten 2001 and Booij 2005).
Appositional Compounds
Appositional compound is an arrangement of words in which
a noun or noun-phrase is followed by another noun. In other
words an appositional compounds is a grammatical
construction in which a word,, especially a noun phrase, is
placed after another to modify its meaning. In this case the
hyponymy is bidirectional e.g., learner-driver. They are also
lexemes that have (contrary) attributes that classify the
compound.
96

Type Description Examples
Endocentric a + b donated a
special and of B
Dark room
Small talk
Exocentric A + B denotes
special kind of an
unexpressed
Semantic head
Skin head pale
face (head
person
Copulative A+ B denotes the
sum of what A and
B denote
Sleepwalk
Bitter Sweet
Appositional A and B provides
different description
for the same
Referent.
It is possible to classify compound based on what Guevara
and Scalise (2008) refer to as input and output categories.
When compounding are classified based on the output
categories, we have such labels as nominal compounds
adjectival compounds, verbal compound etc., whereas if the
classification is based on input categories, that is, based on the
word class of the individual constituents, we have labels such
as noun-noun compound (N+N), Noun + verb (N+V) etc.
Scalise and Bisetto (2009) however offer a new proposal for
classifying compounds based on a simple assumption that the
two constituents are linked by a grammatical relation that
lacks overt expression. The relations holding between the two
constituents of a compound according to them are .basically
the relations that hold in syntactic constructions. They
therefore propose that compounds be classified as
subordinate, attributive and co-ordinate and that the
compounds of these three classes can be both endocentric and
exocentric compounds are classified as subordinate when
there is a complement relation between the two constituents,
for instance in taxi driver, taxi is seen as the complement of
97

the verbal head driver. An attributive compound is formed by
either a noun or an adjective as in red cheese or by two nouns
as in jelly fish, sword fish where the non-head is
metaphorically used to express the attribute of the head. The
coordinate compounds however are seen as compounds whose
constituents are tied by a conjunction and which from a
semantic point of view can be said to have two heads as in
dancer, singer and diner dance.
In the study of compounding, the concept of
headedness is also crucial as most compounds are
characterized as either left headed or right headed. The head
of a compound word is the constituent that determines the
category and the bread meaning of the entire word.
Compound with head are usually called endocentric
compounds. Booij (Z009) further notes that the differences
with respect to the position of the head in compound suggest
that head position is a parametric difference between
languages. He observes that English and German compounds
are right headed, Welch and Helmas compounds are
predominantly left headed while other languages like
mandarin and Vietnamese have both left headed and right
headed compounds.
Compounding as a morphological process in Igbo
In Igbo, compound is the primary morphological process in
constructing words. Examples of compound words in Igbo:
nwa + ada > nwaada eldest daughter
nwa + nne > nwanne brother
ola + edo > olaedo goldring
ụlọ + nche > xlqnche tower
osi + Ite > osi-ite tripod/cooker pot
di + ochi > diochi wine tapper
nwa + di + ala > nwadiala son of the soil
obi + ọha > obioha people’s minds
kpo + nye > kponye ‘call into’
98

tu + nye > tunye ‘Throw into’
ọgwu + ego > ogwuego Money ritual
Nwaozuzu 1991 and Mgbemena 2011 investigate
compounding in Igbo and identified three types of
combination in Igbo namely, Noun + Noun, Noun +
Adjective, and Noun + verb. They further posit that
endocentric nominal compounds in Igbo are generally left
headed while the synthetic compound exhibit the possibility
of either being left-headed or right headed. Their additional
observation reveals that apart from the general compounding
has been used copiously in naming concept particularly ị
names, named through compounding.
lgbo names are endocentric, where the left-heads of
the name determines the syntactic function of the entire
compound forming the name. Each compound consists of two
or more words. For compound names made up of the words
they follow the order of one of the three categories of:
(1) Noun + Noun
(2) Noun + Adjective
(3) Noun + Verb
Examples of the three categories can be seen in the following
charts.
Compounds names made up of Noun + Noun
N + N
1. (a) Ike + Chukwu Ikechukwu God’s power
(b) Ezi + nwaanyi Ezinwaanyi Good woman
(c) Ada + nna Adanna-fathers first daughters
(d) Agu + nwa Agunwa -Strong child
(e) Oge + Chukwu Ogechukwu God’s time
(1) Izu + Chukwu Izuchukwu – God’s plan
(g) Ada + qha Adaoha -daughter of the people
99

2. Compound names made up of Noun + Adjective.
N + A = N
(a) Ụzọ + Ọma Ụzọọma – ‘ good way’
(b) Ada + nta Adanta – ‘ small daughter’
(c) Nwa +nta Nwanta – ‘ small child’
(d) Ụkwụ + Ọma Ụkwụọma -‘good luck (leg)’
(e) nwa + ọcha Nwacha -‘ white child’
(f) Ụzọ + ukwu uzoukwu – ‘big way’ (Gospel)
(g) Ozi + ọma Ozioma – good message
3. Compound names made up of Noun + verb:
(a) Chukwu + du Chukwudu -‘ God leads’
(b) Chi + nwe Chinwe – God wns’
(c) Chukwu + ka Chukwuka -‘ God is greater
(d) Chi + nye Chinye – ‘ God gives’
(e) Chi + kwado Chikwado -‘ God supports’
(f) Chukwu + di Chukwudi -‘ God is present/alive
For Igbo names that are made up of three words or
more, the names follow the structure of noun + verb + noun.
The verb and the second noun expresses the function of the
first noun in the left-head. These three worded names are used
to acknowledge the supremacy of the Igbo God, Chukwu.
4. Compound names made up of Noun + verb + Noun:
A Chukwu + nwe + ndu Chukwunwendu God owns life
B Chukwu + di + ndu Chukwudindu God is
alive/living
C Chi + kere + uwa Chikereuwa God created the
world’
D Chukwu + di + ike Chukwudike God is
strong/powerful
E Chukwu + ka + dibia Chukwukadiba God surpasses
herbalist
F Chukwu + ji + ndụ Chukwujindu God holds life
100

Compounds nouns in Igbo
Igbo language has compound nouns. The positioning of the
words (i.e. the most common order of constituents in phrases
where nouns are modified by adjectives, by possessors, by
other nouns etc.) varies according to the language (Backovic,
2000).Compound nouns are often formed by left-hand heads.
Compound words, in Igbo where nouns are modified by,
nouns you write them separately: examples:
Isi + ewu Isi ewu ‘goat head’
aka + ekpe aka ekpe ‘left hand’
anụ + ezi anụ ezi ‘porkmeat’
ụlọ + ọgwụ ụlọ ọgwụ ‘hospital’
nwa + nnụnụ nwa nnụnụ ‘small bird’
ụmu + agbọghọ ụmụ agbọghọ ‘ladies’
Compound of verbs in Igbo
Compound in Igbo has received both morphological and
syntactic analysis. Anagbogu (1990) claims that a compound
verb is derived morphologically. Compound verbs can be
used in various grammatical constructions. The outcome of
verb compounds may result in verb- prepositional
constructions (Keizer, 2009).
Compound verbs are very common in Igbo language.
Verb is the only grammatical category in the Igbo language
that undergoes inflection. Through inflection, certain number
of verb forms with particular grammatical functions can be
produced. Verbs can be inflected for tense or aspect. This
implies that in a compound verb, one of the verb is the
primary, and determines the primary semantics and also the
argument structure. The secondary verb, often called a vector
verb or explicator, provides fine distinctions, usually in
temporality or aspect, and also carried the inflection. (tense
and/or agreement markers). Verb compounding is productive
101

in the language. A compound verb contains at least two
independent simple verbs.
Simple verb compound
These simple verbs have the same structure with the
imperative forms. The differences lie in the fact that the
imperatives end with an open vowel suffix that is obligatory
on a high tone. (Tone in the Igbo language performs both
lexical and grammatical functions (Nwachukwu 1995)
example:
a. Zù + gbú zùgbu – mal-train
b. Bù + kó – buko – carry and place on
c. Kwá + pù – kwapụ – push out
Bi – positional verb morphology in Igbo
e.g
Kụwa
Gbuda
Gbaji
Gbawa
When you said that a word is a compound word. It
means that, you can separate them, use them independently
and also use them together. E.g
Gbuda – Obi gburu osisi
Obi dara
Zọda – Eze zọrọ nsi/aja
Eze dara
In this case, the meaning remain constant as you change the
verb. These two examples have passed the true test of
compound because you can separate them and also use them
independently.
102

Verb – verb compounds
Verb-verb compounds are sequences of more than one verb
acting together to determine clause structure.
Examples of compound words in Igbo where we have
two or more verb root together.
Ba + ba – baba ba+cha – bacha
Ba + gbu – bagbu fa +gbu – fagbu
Ba + pụ – bapụ
gba+ gbu – gbagbu
Three verb root
a. We + la + ga – welaga
b. Bi + chi + ri – bichiri
c. Me + ka + rị – mekarị
d. Me + kq + ba – mekọba
e. Me + bi +do – mebido
Four verb root
a. Me + chi + do + ro – mechidoro
b. Me + gha + r ị + ri – meghar ịrị
c. Kwu + bi + chi + ri – kwubichiri
d. Che + ka + r ị + rị – chekar ịrị
e. kwu + chi + bi + do – kwuchibido

Summary
From these, it can be observed that there are certain
steps in compounding that are common to Igbo language. It is
observed that Igbo language tend towards the inflectional
morphology with the deviational supportive for appropriate
processes. In Igbo language, compounding and affixation are
available. Tone plays a vital role in the meaning of words, as
well as their morphological process. The two types of
compound – endocentric and exocentric were properly
examined. The concept of headedness was also examined as
103

most compounds are characterized as either left headed or
right headed.

Conclusion
This paper has tried to expose the variety of ways in which
new words can be formed, involving compounding as
morphological processes.

References
Anagbogu, P.N. (1990). The Grammar of Igbo
Nominalizations. Onitsha: University publishing
company.
Backovic, E. (2000). Harmony, Dominance and Control,
Ph.D. Dissertation. The state University of New
Jersey.
Bauer, L. (2001). Compounding. In M. Haspelmath, E. Konig,
W. Oesterrercher, and W. Raible
Bisetto, A and Sca.lise, S. (2005). The Classification of
Compounds. Lingue Linguaggio 42:319-32.
Bloomfield, L. (1933). Language. London: George Allen and
Urwin Limited.
Booij, B. (2005). The Grammar of Words. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.
Jindal, D.V. and Pushpinder, S. (2010). An Introduction to
Linguistics: Language, Grammar and Semantics, 2 ed.
PHI Learning Private Limited. New Delhi.
Keizer, E. (2009). Verb-preposition Constructions in FDG.
Lingua 119.1186-1211.
104

Mgbemena, A. (2011). Orthography. The Igbo example.
Lagos: Sam Iloanusi, Publications.
Ndimele, O.M. (2015). A First Course on Morphology and
Syntax. Port Harcourt: Emilia Printing.
Nwachukwu, P.A. (1995). Tones in Igbo Syntax. Nsukka:
Igbo Language Association.
Nwaozuzu, G .1. (1991). Igbo Nominal Compounds: A
Semantic Typological Analysis. Doctoral Thesis.
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife Nigeria.
Oslen, S. (2001). Copulative Compounds: A Closer Look at
the Interface between Syntax and Morphology. Year
book of morphology 2000, Dordrecht: kluwer 279-
320.
Scalise and Guevara (2008). Introducing Linguistic
Morphology, 2 ed. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown
University Press.
Scalise, S. (1992). The Morphological of Compounding.
Rivista di. Linguistics 3.
Wikipedia. 2017. Compounding, en. Wikipedia. org/ wiki /
compounding. (assessed 26 July, 2017).
Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
105

Teaching and learning German as a Foreign Language at
Tertiary Level: Application of Communicative Language
Teaching for Nigerian Learners
By
Obodoeze Nkechi J.
Department of Modern European Languages, Faculty of Arts,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria
obodoezenkechigog@gmail.com, 08039328555
Oguike Gerald Iheanyichukwu
Department of Modern European Languages, Faculty of Arts,
University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria
oguike.gi@unilorin.edu.ng, 08036698252
&
Agu Basil Obiorah
Department of Foreign Languages &Literary Studies, Faculty
of Arts, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria
basil.agu@unn.edu.ng, 08034362682

Abstract
This article will take a look at the Communicative Language
Teaching with a particular reference to the teaching and
learning of German in Nigeria. It explains the way teachers
can focus the teaching of German as a foreign language
(GLF) in the classroom setting in such a way that students
can communicate in a spontaneous way, taking into account
their real experiences. Communicative language
teaching (CLT) is a language teaching method that
emphasizes interaction as both the means and the goal of
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study. Here, the Communicative Language Teaching with a
combination of some other methods is clearly explained. The
article gives some examples of communicative activities that
can be used in a German class for non native learners of
German.
Key words: Communicative Language Teaching, foreign
language, German language, communication, language
acquisition methods, Nigerian

Introduction
Language as a means of communication constantly evolves
the gateway to another culture. Communication is the
exchange of information on social, cultural, literary and
political issues. It includes interaction on various spheres of
life and activities. Thus, the teaching of foreign languages is
gaining more grounds, in order to improve interpersonal and
international communications among people and nations. Awa
is of the opinion, that some languages have distinguished
themselves from other languages in the world, thus calling
them living languages of the world in the sense that such
languages have imposed their presence in other nations (38).
Interest in German as a foreign language remains at a very
high level.
The latest Deutsch als Fremdsprache Weltweit (German as a
Foreign Language Worldwide) survey puts the number of
German language students worldwide at 15.4 million
according to Michael Gardner. German appears to be an
increasingly important language in people’s careers, both at
home and among those seeking to go to Germany to study,
work and live. In Nigeria, German is learnt predominantly at
schools and learning takes place mainly in the university
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system or other language centres. Ebert notes that “Germany
is more appealing than ever as a location for business and
studies”. (Quoted in Micheal Gardner) We are looking at the
communicative language teaching as a method of acquiring
German as a modern and living language (compare Awa
2007, 38) which Feuser, in the words of Achebe quoted in his
article: “30 Years of Modern Language Teaching in Nigeria”
referred to as one of “any living language, which is taught in
West Africa outside its country or countries of origin”. We
will also consider different methods of language teaching with
their advantages and disadvantages before recommending the
communicative language teaching as a method that will
enhance the communicative proficiency of Nigerian learners
at the tertiary level.

Background
The teaching of foreign languages has witnessed a lot of
dynamic changes in the methods used in the teaching and
acquisition of foreign languages. It is either an extension or
modification of the existing methods, in order to meet the
demands of communication. According to Awa, these
methods can either be didactic based or taken into
consideration other factors like the specific needs of the
learners and the learning situation (30). The choice of a
method depends on the creativity of the teacher to understand
the learning needs of the students and the environment in
which the learning takes place. Awa argues further that the
change in method according to language planners will depend
on the need to reappraise the curriculum content, in order to
improve the standard of the language learners (compare Awa
2007, 39). The effect of redefining new goals for the
curriculum content for language learning ensures flexibility
and introduction of new methods to make improvement in
language acquisition. According to Richard and Rodger
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invention of new methods in foreign language has become a
part of the teaching system. The proliferation of methods is a
prominent characteristic of contemporary second and foreign
language teaching (vii). The need for proficiency in
communication created opportunities for efficiency in the
teaching of languages. With the above background, we shall
briefly discuss some other methods of language teaching.
The grammar translation method is the very first known
traditional method of language teaching. It centres on the
traditional concepts of teaching grammar and vocabulary.
This process includes grammatical rules, procedures for
selecting vocabulary, and social conventions governing
speech. In practice, reading and writing are the major focus
and are also given precedence; little or no systematic attention
is paid to speaking or listening. Students are forced to
memorize hundreds of verb tenses and word lists, but they
never really use the language spontaneously and naturally in
real communication. As a result, the overall communicative
competence of the students is very poor. The weakness of this
method led to the need to articulate and develop alternative
methods of language teaching.
An example of a class activity in a grammar translation
method is illustrated below.
Leute, Leute People, People
Das ist Angelika Wiechert. That is Angelika Wiechert
Sie kommt aus Dortmund; She is from Dortmund;
jetzt lebt sie in Hamburg. She lives now in Hamburg.
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Sie ist verheiratet und hat
zwei Kinder
She is married and
has two children.
Frau Wiechert ist 34 Jahre alt Mrs Wiechert ist 34 years old
und Ingenieurin von Beruf and an engineer by
profession.
Aber zurzeit ist sie Hausfrau. But, she is a house wife at
the moment.
Die Kinder sind noch klein. The children are still small.
Angelika Wiechert hat zwei
Hobbys:
Angelika Wiechert has two
hobbies:
Lesen und Surfen Reading and surfing the
internet
(This text is taken from Themen Aktuell 1, Kursbuch, page 14,
the English translation is done by the authors)
This is a practical example of a grammar-translation
classroom activity. The teacher gives the students a brief
passage in German language; the teacher will provide some
new vocabulary from the passage and give the students time
to translate the passage. There will be some new materials
included in the passage, perhaps a new case, a new verb tense
or a more complex grammatical construction. The teacher
explains the material to the students as he or she works
through the passage with them.
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The direct method also known as the natural method is a
radical change from the Grammar-Translation Method by the
use of the target language as a means of instruction. There is
avoidance of the use of first language as a means of
communication in the classroom and its use as a translation
technique. The Direct method advocates the spontaneous and
direct learning of a foreign language in the class rather than
the procedural rule and analytical procedure of learning
grammar. The learner can deduce the rule and pattern of
grammar. It gives priority to speaking and pronunciation.
Familiar words are used to teach new vocabularies using
pictures and demonstration. This method follows the principle
and observation of the natural approach in which a child
naturally acquires its mother tongue. The use of the language
that is spoken in the study environment is not allowed.
Students are supposed to figure out rules for themselves.
Students are encouraged to speak at all times, making this the
ultimate in student-centred classrooms. Direct method failed
to consider the practical realities which may be found in
learning a foreign language in a classroom.
The audio-lingual method derived its pattern from
linguistics and psychology, which assumes that learning a
language, entails the study of grammar from the view of
syntax. It is characterized by the separation of four basic skills
of language learning, which are: listening, speaking, reading,
and writing. This method uses dialogues as the main means of
presenting the language and emphasizes certain practice
techniques, such as repetition, drills and memorization.
Listening and speaking were now brought right into the centre
of teaching in this method. Tape recordings, and laboratory
drills were offered in practice. Although this method
contributed immensely to language teaching, it failed to
address the issue of real communication outside the
classroom. Students were often found to be unable to transfer
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skills acquired through Audiolingualism to real
communication outside the classroom.
The audio visual method as the name implies is a mixture of
audio and visual presentation of foreign language materials
with a view of improving comprehension and retention.
Language instruction is made possible by the use of audio
visual aids like filmstrips, pictures microforms, slides,
projected opaque materials, DVDs /CDs, PowerPoint,
television educational series tape recording and flashcards.
With the interconnectivity of computers making our world a
global community, the use of audio visual aids has grown
exponentially with the use of life videos on the internet,
android mobile phones, face book, YouTube, and other online
materials. The goal of audio-visual aids is to enhance
teacher’s ability to present the lesson in simple and effective
pattern. The language teacher uses this method to enhance
teaching and learning of foreign language especially in a nonnative
environment. The visual materials make the students to
make use of the sensory organs of seeing and hearing, thus
making it easier for the learners to understand.
Communicative Language Teaching
The changing educational realities to the teaching of foreign
languages in Europe gave impetus for a search for better
methods of teaching foreign languages. The communicative
language teaching began in Britain as an alternative to
Situation Language Teaching in which language is taught by
practicing basic structures in meaningful situation based
activities. This was in response to the sort of criticism
Chomsky had leveled at structural linguistic theory in his
book Syntactic Structures. Chomsky had criticized the
structural theories of language which lack creativities and real
communication. Applied Linguists and language
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Psychologists tried to seek a humanistic approach to language
teaching, one in which the interactive processes of
communication received priority. This led to a paradigm shift
which resulted in communicative language teaching.
Communicative competence is a concept introduced by
Hymes (1972) and redefined by many authors. Hymes’
original idea was that speakers of a language have to have
more than grammatical competence in order to be able to
communicate effectively in a language; they also need to
know how language is used by members of a speech
community to accomplish their purposes.
The communicative language teaching aims to make
communication the goal of language teaching and creates
techniques for teaching the four skills of language learning. It
encourages activities that involve real communication.
Language learners are expected to be negotiators, teachers to
be organizers. It is no doubt that the communicative language
teaching gained popularity and dominated language teaching
in many countries, because it makes language learning more
interesting and helps learners to develop linguistic
competence as well as communicative ability.
Advocating the Communicative Language Teaching in
teaching German language as a foreign language in
Nigeria
The main objective of this article is to address the issue of
communicative competence of Nigerian students of German.
This article is proposing this method, which will help students
studying German in the Nigerian universities especially those
who are studying it either as the single honour or the
combined honours. The goal of language learning is not only
to study the rudiments of the grammar in a stereotype way,
but also to be able to communicate effectively in real life
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situations outside the classroom. Thus, Sonaiya in her article
“grenzenlos lernen” expressed the immediate need to improve
the competence of those learning German in our higher
institutions. She lamented that the abolition of the year abroad
is affecting the quality of the Nigerian students of German in
terms of their communicative competence. She decries further
that the teaching of German is lacking in the aspect of
fostering language exchange with the native speakers of
German (40). Sonaiya in reflecting on the sociological and
philosophical contexts, in which foreign languages are taught,
criticises the method in which the foreign languages are
taught in our classrooms:
We simply took whatever methods came to us from
abroad, methods that were designed for learners
with totally different cultural backgrounds and,
possibly, educational objectives than our own and
put them to use in our language classrooms.( qtd in
Awa 38page)
Sonaiya’s criticisms of the borrowed methods used in our
foreign language classrooms need to be addressed. What
emerges clearly is lopsidedness and imbalance in teaching
foreign languages in our cultural settings. There is no much
result that is achieved, because of lack of direct integration
and exchange with the target language, which according to
Sonaiya, direct unmediated contact with the target culture is
considered a major aspect of the foreign language learning
experience (49) . Our foreign language teachers borrow
methods, which may not suit our learning environment, the
multilingual nature of the learners and the language needs of
the learners; as well as the availability of modern teaching and
learning facilities.
Since the abolition of the year abroad programme in Germany
in 1997, Nigerian students of German are not to be said to be
having unmediated contact with the mother tongue speakers,
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thus, there is a bridge between their learning and having
active access to interact with native speakers of German. This
apparent lack of exchange and immersion has somewhat
reflected in their inability to communicate effectively after
their four year degree programme. From the afore- mentioned
challenge of teaching German in Nigeria, it can therefore be
said that, there is a great need to improve the communicative
competence of Nigerian students of German through a
method or with a combination of methods, which will develop
the communicative abilities of the students.
A German language teacher should not limit himself only to
routine use of textbooks or teaching aids but should avail
himself with modern means of communications like satellite
television, videos, and even the use of the Internet to bring the
students closer to real communication. An understanding of
foreign language acquisition methods can improve the
teacher’s ability to serve the culturally and linguistically
diverse students in the classroom. It is important to get
professional development, which will enable the teacher to
gain a full understanding of foreign language acquisition
theories and teaching strategies, which can be quickly
understood and applied in the German language classroom.
Communicating effectively in German language requires the
learner’s good understanding of linguistic, sociolinguistic and
socio-cultural aspects of German language. This
understanding will enable him to use the right language in the
right context and then he can be referred to as
communicatively competent speaker. However, the realization
of this level of communicative skill is always a big challenge
for Nigerian students of German language. They often
struggle through their journey towards the achievement of this
goal and are often met with many obstacles. Therefore, there
is need to redesign German language courses and programmes
for Nigerian contexts to achieve this desirable goal.
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The objective of learning German language is to interact and
communicate effectively in real life, which involves the use of
German Language or working with German literature or
aspects of German culture. Communicative language
teaching makes use of real-life situations that necessitate
communication. The teacher sets up a situation that students
are likely to encounter in real life. Students’ motivation to
learn comes from their desire to communicate in meaningful
ways about their real life activities.
German Language Teaching Centred in Communication:
Some examples of communicative exercises in the
classroom
In a communicative teaching method, activities in a German
lectures are to be centred in helping the students acquire
certain abilities in oral interaction and expression, hearing and
reading comprehension. In each class, students should lead to
practice German in contextualized and practical situations
through activities with predefined goals. The exercises and
activities that can be used in Communicative Language
Teaching are numerous and inexhaustible as long as such
activities will enable learners to attain a high level of
communicative competence. Classroom activities should be
on tasks that will involve information exchange and role play.
Both the teacher and the learners have different roles to play.
First lecture with beginners in a German course
Two new students introduce themselves in front of the class.
Zwei neue Studenten stellen sich vor der Klasse
Chidi: Hallo, mein Name ist Chidi. Wie heißt du?
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Bimbo: Ich heiße Bimbo. Ich bin neu an der Uni. Bist du auch
neu und woher kommst du?
Chidi: Ich bin neu. Ich habe eine Zulassung, um Deutsch zu
studieren. Ich komme aus Anambra. Und du?
Bimbo: ich bin Deutschstudentin und komme aus Lagos Staat.
Wo wohnst du?
Chidi: Ich wohne im Studentenwohnheim. Und du?
Bimbo: Ich wohne auch im Studentenwohnheim. Das ist
Super! Wir können Deutsch zusammen lernen und sprechen.
Es freut mich, dich kennenzulernen.
Chidi: Ich auch
Another example of communicative activity in the class
Beim Abendessen bei Familie Okoronkwo
Vater: Hallo was gibt es zum Abendessen?
Mutter: Wir haben heute Abend viel zu vergnügnen.
Obinna: Mutter, Ich weiss, dein Essen ist immer super.
Adanna: Vater, ich weiss, du hast schon Hunger .
Vater: Bring das Essen jeztz. Es ist schon halb sechs.
Mutter: Alles ist bereit.
Obinna: Es gibt Abacha mit Gemuse und Fisch.
Vater: Dazu gibt es unseren lokalen frischen Palmwein.
The teacher can create a lot of class activities like Role-play,
games, pair-work, learning by teaching, group activities in
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contextualized, practical and everyday situations in German.
The teacher should always use any activity that will engage
learners in spontaneous communication. The teacher should
take note of student’s mistakes in order to help them discover
on their own the correct way of speech. These activities will
make the learners to have a deeper appreciation of the German
language, cultures, and literature. When interacting with their
classmates or teacher, they will develop self confidence in
using German and will have a deeper understanding of how
they can interact in German always.
When the students of German participate actively in the class
activities, it can develop their communication skills, which
they can apply outside the classroom. Besides, these activities
should give the students the opportunity to learn about the
linguistic, grammatical and cultural aspects of the
communicative competence of German language.
Challenges for achieving the Communicative Competence
for Nigerian students of German language
Teachers of Foreign Languages still find it difficult in making
their students achieve a high level of communicative
competence despite the popularity of the method (Sano et al,
1984). This is due to the challenges that have been
encountered by both foreign language teachers and students in
these contexts, since the introduction of this concept. The
language teachers in these contexts will face difficulty in
choosing what skills are to be taught for students and in
identifying the effective methods for developing students’
communicative competence (Huda, 1999, 30).
For a Nigerian Teacher of German, it is often an uphill task
for him to make his students to achieve a high level of
communicative competence. Here, two major challenges will
be looked into: Proficiency of the teacher and lack of real
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immersion programme for learners. Proficiency of the teacher
is a major factor in the development of the communicative
competence of German language learners. However, this goal
seems to be very-far reaching in foreign contexts, if this
concept is to be interpreted in terms of native speaker’s level.
Nevertheless, all language teachers need to seek the
development of their communicative competence, if the goals
of teaching a language is to be able to help the learners
achieve a high communicate competence. They should be
aware that the realization of this far reaching goal requires
much effort and may take a long time. The teaching of foreign
language requires high proficiency language level in order to
teach effectively. Teachers’ low proficiency level can be a
hindrance in using the communication methods for language
teaching. (Li, 1998; Nunan, 2003; Orafi & Borg, 2009).
The other challenge is that there is no real immersion
programme for Nigerian students of German language.
Language exchange and immersion help learners of a foreign
language to have a direct contact with the native speakers of
the language they are learning. This exchange will create an
unforgettable experience that will accelerate their language
learning process. There is no real immersion program for
Nigerian students of German. The Equivalent Year Abroad
Program (EYAP) in Goethe Institut, Lagos, which was
introduced in 1997 as an alternative to the year abroad
programme in Germany cannot be said to improve the needed
communicative competence. Spending some time in an
immersion environment helps language learners to learn a
target language naturally. One is not trying to dismiss the
effectiveness of language education in the classroom. With
the experience of the courses taught in the classroom, it would
be amazing to see the progress of interacting socially in
Germany, if the opportunity is offered to Nigerian students of
German.
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Conclusion
In foreign language teaching, it would be better to develop a
model of communicative competence that takes into account
the specific contextual, social and linguistic factors of nonnative
learners. Therefore, non native teachers of German
language need to be involved in the process of designing the
language materials in German courses within the context of
the learning environment. Communicative Language
Teaching should be considered as a method that will enhance
the communicative ability of the learners, especially in an
environment where the learners cannot get direct contact with
native speakers. It is a method that will help teachers, who
want to provide opportunities in the classroom for their
students to engage in real-life communication in the target
language.

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Chomsky, Noam. Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.
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