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Volume11. No 1, October, 2018
Ideal International Journal
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©Igbo Scholars Forum Nigeria

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Suleja, Niger State

Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo

FORUM Nigeria calls for well researched papers from authors in
areas that borders on Igbo in relation to other people’s cultures. We
welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all
subjects pertaining to Igbo, Nigerian, African people’s and others’
relations on Public policy, Language, Religion, Philosophy,
Education, Medicine, History, Economy, Sociology, Culture,
Engineering, Business relations, Comparative politics, strategy and
environment, etc. Submit manuscripts as e-mail attachment to the
Editorial Office at: or send two
hard copies of your papers to any of the editors. Referencing style is
MLA or APA. The Journal wishes to publish the results of her
researches annually.
Onukwube Alex A. Anedo
Department of African & Asian Studies,
Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka,
Anambra State – Nigeria
Phone: +2348037859249, +2348149225739
Vol.11 No.1 October, 2018. ISSN: 2476-8421

                                                                                FROM EDITORIAL DESK                                                                                             Ideal International Journal is one of the brain children of Igbo Scholars Forum born out of the zeal to get the young Igbo scholars together so as to start thinking like Igbo sons and daughters through
paper publications, meetings and symposia. As a matter of fact, IgboScholars Forum was founded by Dr. Onukwube Alexander Alfred Anedo and born at the launching of a festschrift in honour of their life patron, Prof. Obed Muojekwu Anizoba (Ozonwa) on the 15th day of December, 2012. In his kind gesture, Prof O. M. Anizoba
therefore established a website for them to use in telling
the world who the Igbo people are, about their life, what they believe in and their relationship with people and other cultures of the world outside theirs. Other journal outlets through which this Forum wants to let Igbo people and their culture out to the world are Igboscholars International Journal and Ekwe International Journal
which is solely written only in Igbo language. Onukwube A. A. Anedo, Ph.D.

Consulting Editors:

1. Dr. Mrs. Lizzy Anizoba
Department of English and Litrature, Paul University, Awka –Nigeria
2. Prof. Sam Uzochukwu
Department of Linguistics, African & Asian Studies, University ofLagos Nigeria
3. Prof Sheng Jia
Department of Chinese Culture & Anthropology, Xiamen
University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, P. R. China
4. Prof Yuhua Ji
Department of English language & Linguistics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian Province, P. R. China
5. Prof B. Okolo
Department of Languages & Linguistics, University of Benin, Edo State, Nigeria
6. Dr. Gamini Ranasinghe
Department of Archeology & Anthropology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka
7. Prof. Paul Ikechukwu Oguguo
Department of Philosophy, faculty of Arts, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria
8. Dr Babette Zoumara
Bank for Seeds and Solar Energy, Atlanta, Georgia, United, States of America
9.Dr. Mrs. Evelyn Ezinwanne Mbah
Department of Linguistics, Igbo & Other Nigerian languages, Faculty of Arts, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
10. Dr. Lucy Mgbemgasha Apakama
Department of Nigerian Languages, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
©Igbo scholars’ forum, Nigeria 2018


Members of Editorial Board
1. Onukwube Alex Alfred Anedo (Editor-in-Chief)
Ph.D. (African Culture & Civilization); M. A. (African Culture & Civilization); M.Phil. (Chinese Culture & Anthropology); B.A.Ed. (Ed/Igbo/Linguistics); N.C.E. (Igbo/Religion); Diploma in Chinese Studies. Senior Lecturer, Nnamdi Azikiwe Umniversity, Awka; Visiting Senior Lecturer, Department of Linguistics, Igbo & Other
Nigerian languages, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
2. Rev. Bro. Charles Ogbuchukwu Okeke
Ph.D; M.A. (ATR), B.D (Theo); B.Phil, PGDE, Dipl (Italian & French), Head of Department, Relious Studies, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe, Anambra State, Nigeria,
3. Enyinnia Samuel Ikokwu Ph.D, M.A; B.A. PGDE.(JOS). Specialist in Igbo Literature & Stylistics Department of Linguistice, Igbo & Other Nigerian languages, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
4. Friday Ifeanyichukwu Ogbuehi
Ph.D; M.A. B.A Department of Religion, Trinity Theological College, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.
5. Deacon Ndubuisi Ogbonna Ahamefula
B. A. Linguistics M. A. Linguistics, Department of Liguistic, Igbo & Other Nigerian languages, University of Nigeria Nsukka
6.Viola Chinenye Edeze
Ph.D;(African Culture & Civilization), M.A.; B.A.Ed/Igbo/Lin Department of Nigerian Languages, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
7.Chimezie Okoye
B.A. (English) Secretary, Igboscholars Forum, Nigeria. Besing Books, No. 9 Wisdom Avenue, Suleja, Niger State.
8. Ben Nkemdirim Igbokwe
B.A. M.A. Ph.D. (NAU) African Culture & Civilization School of General Studies, Federal University of Technology,
Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria
©Igbo scholars’ forum, Nigeria 2018

Table of Contents & Contributors
1. The Effects Of Bad Governance/Corruption On The Economic Development of Nigeria                                                       Barr. Okeke Bartholomew S., Ph.D.
Reader In Economic
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe Anambra State Nigeria p.8
2. Indigenous Music: A Catalyst for National Development
Dr. Achu, A. O.
Department of Music Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe p.30
3. The Child’s Right Act and the Right of Nigerian Children
Dr. Joyce N. Mbaebie
Department of Political Science Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe P. 39
4. Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: A Review of Government Policy Measures
Barr. Bartholomew S. Okeke, Ph.D
Department of Economics, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe p.59
5.The Role of Music in Education and Politics
Dr. Achu, A. O
Department of Music, Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe p.80


The Effects of Bad Governance/Corruption on the Economic
Development of Nigeria
Barr. Okeke Bartholomew S. Ph.D.
Reader In Economic
Nwafor Orizu College of Education, Nsugbe
Anambra State Nigeria                 

In Nigeria today every one, parents, teachers, school children etc have become worried on the escalating level of bad governance and its corruptive effects that has eaten deep into the root of Nigerian economy. Thus, this forms the basis for engaging in this study. This paper thus aimed at examining the effect of bad governance and its corruption which it breeds on the economic development of Nigeria such as its effect on employment, standard of living, educational growth, and investment. The study employed the political elite theory as the main theoretical framework upon which the study is anchored. The study also examined what good governance is that needs to be embraced by every democratic government. Various cases of corruptive practices of our political leaders were highlighted, starting from the first republic to the present. The study also showed how bad governance and corruptive practices affect
economic development. It also proffered the way out or how bad governance and corruptive practice could be arrested. These included among other things, that there is the need for the independence of Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and Independent Corruption Practice Commission (ICPC) and other related Offences (ICPC) to prevent government inference from their operations, and that government should found ways of
inculcating good moral values into our youths since they are the future leaders of this great nation Nigeria.

`Nigeria as a country in the continent of Africa is a victim of poor and bad governance, and this poses a challenge to the effective economic development, inhibiting security and peace of the nation. Nigeria as a nation, has suffered greatly from poor leadership and bad governance, and this withholds the country from moving forward. Economic development seems stagnated and as though she will never get there to measure among some developed
countries of the world. Each day the people of Nigeria look forward to a better Nation but, corruption and bad political practices have eaten deeply the root that holds Nigeria strong and united. A country that is known for peace and unity, now is been terrorized in every state and city by way of killing, kidnapping, stealing, fighting, as well as other innumerable corrupt practices that are going on, because of one or more selfish political gains. The nation is gradually falling, as the leadership and political responsibilities of our leaders do not play a key role in promoting economic development or dealing with issues that affect the well being of the general population. Therefore, everyone lives in fear as though all hope is lost. Everyday there is a struggle in the life of every man to make ends meet by engaging in one activity or the other but at the end, it seems all resources are limited. Businesses are limited, scarcity of necessary resources such as fuel, high rise in prices of goods and services. Some of these make life difficult for the common man. At the end of struggle and survival of the fittest, many families and homes tarnish in poverty and lack of food and social amenities causing men, women, and children to end in the grave because they cannot afford the standard of living in the country called Nigeria. All hands then point to the government and
leaders who bear rule in Nigeria, because a measure of responsibility has been laid on them to provide a measurable
standard of living for the people of Nigeria, to accommodate the poor, but reverse is the case.
Importantly, Academic scholars from the West believed that African underdevelopment is caused by the mode of production imposed externally (Zambakari, 2012). Some scholars such as Amin (1972) and Rodney (1972) are of the view that African system of

penetrating into the world economy is responsible for its underdevelopment. Other academic scholars blamed the condition imposed by the Breton Wood Institutions i.e the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) on Africa for its underdevelopment (Amin, 2010; Easterly, 2001; Goldstein & Montiel, 2007). On the other hand, Amin (1990) and Arrighi, (2007) assert that “the problem of underdevelopment in Africa lies with the system of production and the capitalist system. Hence, new research by African scholars has put the blame of the continent underdevelopment on the doorstep of African leaders”. They argued on this hypothesis that “corruption in Africa leads to the continent’s underdevelopment”. This assumption is based on the fact that funds that would have been used to develop the continent are stolen by African leaders and splashed in foreign accounts overseas. The
proponents of this theory are Nageri et al 2013; Agbiboa 2012; Maunro, 2007; Obayelu, 2007; Sachs, 2005; and Smith 2007). The bad governance thus breeds corruption and this has permeated every section of the Nigerian economy and has thus crippled the economic growth and development of the country.

Theoretical Framework :

The Theoretical framework for this study is the Elite theory. Political Elite Theory
Elite theory is a theory of the state that describes the power relationships in a contemporary society. The theory asserts that a small clique (minority group) composing of members of the political class and the policy making network holds the most power in a state and they exert substantial power over policy decisions. Vergara
(2013) posits that the “elite is a small powerful group that controls large amount of power”. Pareto (1963) emphasizes the psychological and knowledgeable power that the political elite has
obtained, and he consideres them to be the governing elite. The political elite is a cabinet of people that control the reign of government (Vergara, 2013). In the Nigerian context, the political
elite is a group of people one sees in government institutions such as
the Presidency, National Assembly and the Federal Executive

Council that control government machinery. At the state level, they
control government apparatus. They include governors and members
of the State Houses of Assembly. Renowned constitutional lawyer,
Professor Itse Sagay has berated the political elite in Nigeria for the
country’s underdevelopment. He accused members of the National
Assembly for consuming large amount of the country’s wealth as
salaries at the expense of Nigeria’s development. The former
Central Bank of Nigeria, Governor Sanusi Lamido corroborated this
fact when he said in 2010 that “the National Assembly members that
are less than one percent of the population consumed 25 percent of
the nation’s budget”. Billions of dollars have been mismanaged by
the ruling class since independence which have dragged the
country’s development into crisis. The former EFCC chairman Nuhu
Ribadu and the former World Bank Vice President for Africa Oby
Ezekwesili have estimated that over 400 billion dollars have been
stolen from the Nigerian coffer by public office holders since
independence. Corruption breeds poverty and that is why there is the
prevalence of poverty in Nigeria. In a similar manner, poverty
breeds insecurity. The security challenges befalling Nigeria has been
blamed for the high-level poverty in the country (Awojobi, 2014).
Meaning of Bad Governance
Bad governance is a complete opposite of good
governance, which involves the abuse of human rights, corruption,
lack of transparency, lack of responsiveness, and lack of
accountability. It is in fact the inability of public institution to
manage affairs and public resources, and failure of a government to
meet the needs of society while making the best use of all resources
at their disposal (Kan, 2014). Bad government thus supports
exploitation and abuse of its power, and it is thus characterized by
corruption, crime, and no freedom of expression by the public.
Generally, bad governance has the following characteristics:
corruption, abuse of human rights, no freedom of expression, high
level of centralization, absence of transparency and accountability
(World Bank 1997). Thus (Heywood 2014) stated that “governance
is bad if things fall apart, especially the economy and the relations
between members of governing bodies”.
Meaning of Corruption

Salisu (2000) encapsulates corruption to mean “the
mismanagement of public funds for private gain”. Oludayi (2015)
states that “corruption occurs if funds that are supposed to be used
for development purpose in Nigeria are pocketed by politicians at
the detriment of the nation’s development”. Ateihe and Agada
(2014) State that “corruption among politicians occurs in a
democratic setting. It occurs when politicians and political decision
makers who are the custodian of law for the benefits of all are
corrupt”. Corruption among politicians are unlawful, immoral and
unofficial exploitation of one’s political position for personal gain
(Nager et al 2013). Corruption may be conceived as a form of
dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of
authority offers to acquire benefits.
Corruption may include many activities such as bribery and
embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are illegal
in many countries. The general view is that whenever corruption is
mentioned, attention goes to public office holders only, but even the
common man is not left out in corruption practices. No doubt, the
monsters of corruption has grown so long and strong that it has
permeated all aspects of our lives. Broadly speaking, corruption is of
the three types, namely,
– Grand corruption: This involves acts committed at a high
level of government that distort policies or the central
functioning of the state enabling the leaders to benefit at
the expense of the public good.
– Petty corruption: This involves everyday abuse of entrusted
power by low – and mid-level public officials in their
interactions with ordinary citizens.
– Political corruption: It involves manipulation of policies,
institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of
resources and financing by political decision makers who
abuse their position to sustain their power, status and
Corruption therefore is the intentional mis-performance or
neglect of a recognized duty, or the unwarranted exercise of power,
with the motive of gaining some advantage more or less directly
personal. Tanzi (1995) states that “corruption is the intentional non13
compliance with the arm’s-length principle aimed at deriving some
advantages for oneself or for related individuals from this
behaviour.” Corruption is thus the act which deviates from rules of
conduct governing the actions of someone in a position of public
authority or private-regarding-motive such as wealth, power or
status. Gray and Kaufmann (1998) define acts of corruption to
include “bribery and extortion, which necessarily involve at least
two parties and other malfeasances that a public official can carry
out alone including fraud and embezzlement”. For them, it manifests
in governmental activities through the appropriation of public assets
for private use and embezzlement of public funds by politicians and
high-level officials. Lipset and Lenz (2000) define corruption as “an
effort to secure wealth or power through illegal means-private gain
at public expense”. Corruption is “the abuse of public office for
private gain.” In other words, the use of this definition excludes the
possibility of corruption in the private sector, and it focuses
exclusively on corruption in the public sector. This definition is
consistent with the beliefs of Gary Becker that “if we abolish the
State, we abolish corruption”. Alatas (1990) defines corruption as ‘a
situation where two people can act to increase their own pay-off at
the expense of a third person’. This does not mean that an individual
cannot perpetrate the act. It is important to note that transparency
International (2003) has chosen a clear and focused definition of
Corruption; it is operationally defined as ‘the misuse of entrusted
power for private gain’. Transparency International further
differentiates between “according to rule” corruption and “against
the rule” corruption. Facilitation payments, where a bribe is paid to
receive preferential treatment for something that the bribe receiver is
required to do by law, constitute the former. The latter, on the other
hand, is a bribe paid to obtain services the bribe receiver is
prohibited from providing.
Various cases of Bad Governance /Corruption in Nigeria
Bad governance/political corruption in Nigeria started even
from the First republican government in Nigeria. By definition the
First republic in Nigeria came into being when Nigeria became free
from foreign rule and that was after independence in 1960 and it
started in 1963 but regrettably lasted only 3 years (1963 – 1966).
The abrupt collapse of the First republican government in Nigeria

was due to the military intervention in the governance of the country
(Akanade and Akanade, 2011). This was more because the First
republic was noted for ethnicity, nepotism and unprecedented level
of corruption. Hence Ogbeidi (2012) sates thus “the First republic
under the leadership of Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, the Prime
Minister and Nnamdi Azikewe, the President was characterized by
widespread corruption”. According to him, “that government looted
public funds with impunity”. Also, Federal government
representatives and Ministers were at this period not free from
corruptive practices as they flouted their wealth with reckless
The Military government then toppled the government in
power due to the wide level of corruption and other reasons best
known to them. The Second republic which came into being in 1979
lasted for only four years (1979 – 1983) as the military government
accused the civilian government politicians of high level of
corruption. This led to jailing of many prominent politicians for
financial corruption by the military Junta.
However, one cannot give any account of reasonable
corruption during the third republic. This is because the period did
not last as it was derailed and truncated by Ibrahim Babangida
administration during the Third republic which was marked by a
return to a democratically elected civilian government on May 29,
1999 and this was characterized with resurgence of financial
corruption by politicians that had undermined national development
sixteen years of uninterrupted democracy. The worrisome trend as
regard the magnitude of financial corruption by the politicians
moved the Obasanjo administration to introduce two anti –
corruption agencies, namely, the Economic and Financial Crimes
Commission (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices &
Commission and other Related offences (ICPC). Ogbeidi and
Ogundoya (2012), Ayobulu (2006) & Sachs (2005) argue that
“corruption is the bane to Nigerian development and that it had
retarded economic growth and had remained an insurmountable
Subscribing to the above fact, Achebe (1983) states that “the trouble
with the country called Nigeria is that political leaders use the

instrument of power to commit and maintain corruption”. It is thus
on the basis of the above cases of corruption prevalent in Nigeria
that had prompted this paper to investigate the effect of bad
governance/corruption on economic development of Nigeria.
Suffice it to say that the Fourth republic has not been exempted from
widespread corruption despite the two anti – corruption agencies
created by the Obasanjo’s government.
Hence this paper also exposes financial corruption in
Nigeria during the Fourth Republic. During the period of Obsanajo’s
administration (1999-2004) the Presidency was involved in
corruption Scandal (Oludayi 2014). According to him, for example,
the vice president was indicted by the senate committee to
investigate the vice – President role in the activities of the Petroleum
Technology Development Fund (PTDF). The president, Obasanjo
was not free of corruption as he used his influence to acquire shares
in transcropt. He also used his political power to persuade the
economic elite of the country to build a presidential library for him
at Abeokuta. Worse still, even the 16 billion dollars that was
budgeted for power generation in the 8 – years of his regime was not
accounted for since there was still erratic power supply in Nigeria
during the era and even now.
President Yar’ Adua started on a good foot step but was
accused of bowing to the whims and caprices of the politicians that
made his election to come true to remove the EFCC chairman Nuhu
Ribadu. In the same way, President Goodluck Jonathan was accused
of conspiracy silence in the corruption allegation leveled against the
Minister of petroleum as well as for granting presidential pardons to
convicted political criminals. Some of the federal Ministries that
have been accused of corruption included Sunday Afolabi, Fabian
Osuji, Hussani Zannuwa Akwanga, Alice Osomo and Stella Oduah,
etc. (Urien 2014).
Regrettably, the National Assembly in Nigeria is not free
from corruption that results from bad governance. This is because
the National assembly which is the watchdog of the executive arm
of government as being bestowed the role of checkmating the
financial excesses of the executive has used this power to involve in

corruption scandal. For instance, some members of the National
Assembly that have been involved in financial corruption include
late Chuba Okadigbo Adolphus Nwagbara, Dimeji Bankole and his
deputy, Farouk Lawal, Boniface Emanalo, Ndu Elumelu and
Herman Hemba (Urien 2014). However, Dimeji Bankole and his
deputy and Ndu Elumelu have been exonerated by the anti court, of
corruption charges (Oladayo2014). Similarly, the state is not free of
financial corruption as a sign of bad governance. Recently the
Minister of finance required the Nigerians to ask their various
governors what they have been doing with their federal allocation
that they usually receive from the federation account since these
allocation did not show the presence of physical development in
their states. This is to say that most state governors are corrupt
which results from their bad governance as they use the allocation
for their personal gain. This, thus, prompted the former EFCC
chairman Nuhu Ribadu to state that 31 state governors have corrupt
cases to answer and his immediate successor Farida Waziri
lamented to Nigerians that the case files of the 31 governors were
According to Urine (2012), the regime of General
Babangida, actually is seen as the body that legalized corruption, as
his administration refused to give account of the Gulf War windfall,
which is estimated to be $12.4 billion. He annulled the only
successful election in the history of Nigeria in June 12 1993, and he
lives in a very exquisite mansion in his home State (Niger-state) in
the Northern part of the country. The death of the General Sani
Abacha revealed the global nature of graft. French investigations of
bribes paid to government officials to ease the award of a gas plant
construction in Nigeria revealed the global level of official graft in
the country. The investigations led to the freezing of accounts
containing about $100 million United States dollars.
Meaning of Economic Development
In the past people conceive economic growth to mean
economic development. Accordingly they saw economic growth as
an increase in the real gross national product and this has been used
as a proxy for measuring economic development. Struten (1995)
identifies that “though economic growth remains unarguably an

important aspect of economic development, there is now a
realization that economic growth is not always tantamount with
economic development”. A major breakthrough in the thinking
about economic development came with the work of Mahbub UL
Hug (1995) and Amarlya Sen (1999) which led to a redefinition of
the economic development process from one that focuses on
economic growth to one in which the fruits of economic growth
benefits the population, higher literacy rates and education level,
better health (low mortality rate) and good nutrition and more
equality. Simply put, while economic growth deals mainly with
increase in the gross national product or real physical output of
goods and services of a country over a time economic development
goes beyond that to making sure that these goods and services are
evenly distributed to the entire population with major objective of
reducing unemployment, inequality, absolute poverty, mortality and
illiteracy rates (Okeke 2005). Below are the major distinctions
between economic growth and economic development.
It is intestinally to have the knowledge that economic
development is just one aspect of development in any nation
because development in any nation is measured in terms of a pattern
of interaction among social, economic and political factors. Hence
Todaro (1997) defines development as “a multi-dimensional process
involving major structural process in social, attitude, and national
instructions, as well as acceleration of economic growth, the
reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty”. Simply put,
development refers to the process of improving the quality of life of
all human beings specifically for the purpose of this study the author
concentrates on economic development as one aspect of
Distinction between Economic Growth and Economic
There is an important distinction between the terms
economic growth and economic development – a distinction not
always made clear m the literature on the world’s materially poor

Economic development can be defined as “an upward movement of
social, economic and political system of a country”. (Okeke, 2003)
It thus refers to a quantitative and qualitative increase in the
economic system of a country. It involves an increase in productive
employment which implies an increase in the share of the poor
sections of the society, of the national product and equitable
distribution of income in the economy.
Economic growth on the other hand refers to physical
growth in output of goods and services. That is, the quantitative
increase in the supply of goods and services in a given economy. It
refers to an increase overtime in a country’s real output per capita
which is measured by gross national product (GNP). Moreover, it is
usual to measure economic growth in terms of GNP per capita, but
economic development has no single parameter for its measurement,
although in the words of Zuvekas (1985) “one might say that
development occurs if overtime a progressively high percentage of
the population share the fruit of economic growth”.
`Economic growth does not necessarily imply development
while development invariably embodies growth. This is because in
the words of Wilber (2013) “economic growth is analyzed in terms
of changes in the value of economic parameter in given institutional
conditions, while economic development refers to a situation in
which changes in the value of economic parameter are accompanied
by institutional changes” Mydral (1983). Economic development is
thus concerned with long term increases in the production of goods
and service in a country and how these goods are distributed among
the population with a view to reducing inequality in the sharing. But
unlike economic development, growth is not concerned with
distribution but, indeed quantitative expression over-time (Jhingan
2008). The implication of this is that output may be growing and yet
the majority of the people may be growing poorer. Secondly,
economic growth unlike economic development is not primarily
concerned with consumption of the output. This implies that as far
as economic growth is concerned output may be growing but
consumption may be declining, perhaps, through much saving.

Meaning of Good Governance
Before a discussion on how bad governance and corruption
affect economic development in Nigeria it is first and foremost very
important to briefly explain what good governance stands for.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the
international development interactive to describe how public
institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
From the above definition, governance refers to the process of
decision making and the process by which decision are implemented
or not implemented.
According to the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), “governance refers to the exercise of economic, political
and administrative authority to mange a country affairs at all levels
or it comprises mechanisms, processes and institutions enough
which articulate decision making through which citizens and groups
articulates their interests, exercise their legal rights, meet their
obligations of development resources”.
Accordingly, good governance involves among other
things participatory, transparent and accountable, effective and
equitable, and it promotes the rule of law. It also ensures that
political, social and economic priorities are based on broad
consensus in society and that the voices of the poorest and the most
vulnerable are heard in decision making over the allocation of
development resources. In other words, the characteristics of good
governance include participation, rule of law, transparency,
responsiveness, conscious orientation where by good governance
mediates different interests to reach a broad conservative group and
where possible on political and procedures. Other characteristics
include effectiveness and efficiency, accountability and strategic
vision. By strategic vision it means that leaders and public have
broad and long term perspective on good development along with a
sense of what is made for such development the historical, cultural
and social complexities.
The major distinctive feature of UNDP definition of good
governance is that it encompasses not just the state but the private
sector and civil society as well. This is because all the three are

viewed as crucial for sustainable human development. Specifically,
the role of the state is viewed as that of creating a stable political
and legal environment conducive to sustained development while
civil society institutions and organizations are viewed as means of
facilitating political and social interaction and mobilizing groups to
participate in economic, social and political activities.
The World Bank sees the term ‘good governance’ as “the
manner in which power is exercised in the management of a
country’s economic and social resources for development”. On this
premise, the concept of governance is concerned directly with the
management of the development process, involving both the public
and the private sectors. It thus encompasses the functioning and
capability of the public sector as well as the rules and institutions
that create the framework for the conduct of both public and private
business including accountability for economic and financial
performance and regulatory frameworks relating to companies,
corporations and partnerships. Broadly speaking, good governance
is concerned with the institutional environment in which citizens
interact among themselves and with government agencies/officials.
In summary therefore, the key dimensions of good governance
identified by the World Bank are:
– The public sector management
– Accountability
– Legal framework for development
– Transparency and information.
However, according to United Nations High Commission for
Human Rights, the true test of good governance is the degree to
which it encourages on the promise of human rights civil,
cultural, economic, political and social rights. Hence the
commission’s key question is: are the institutions of governance
effectively guaranteeing the right to good health, adequate
housing, sufficient food, quality education, fair justices and
personal security?

Effect of Bad Governance and Corruption on Economic
Development of Nigeria
Generally, it is a well known fact that corruption resulting
from bad governance leads to lower income per capital, lower
educational levels, high income inequality, low investment.
Specially, corruption is associated with an increase in barriers to do
business. This is because big companies are able to access public
goods by leveraging their balance sheets. These include electricity
and water pipes among others. Smaller companies cannot afford
these and rely on the government for provision but corruption
weakens public fund management and public goods provision.
Hence, corruption makes it more difficult for small and medium
scale business to compete. It is important to note that corruption
affects the indices of development such as employment, literacy
rate, poverty and standard of living and even productivity.
In terms of employment, the rate of unemployment among
Nigerian youths is alarming. This is because of corruption. Due to
corruption vacancies that would have been filled up in many
institutions are either filled up with already retired personnel or left
unfilled while at the same time the managers of those institutions
continue to receive their salaries and divert them to their personal
pockets. Thus the percentage of unemployed graduates continue to
skyrocate. More so, many people are poor today in Nigeria due to
the high level of corruption resulting from bad governance. This is
because most of the resources that were mapped out for capital
project that can generate goods for the benefit of the masses are
diverted to the personal pockets of our political leaders. The same
corruption affects the educational level on the country thereby
increasing the illiteracy rate. This is because the funds being
mapped for educational growth are either half spent or wholly
diverted to the personal pockets of our leaders. This thus leads to
poor infrastructural facilities, employment of low quality teachers,
and poor academic environment that adversely affect effective
teaching and learning.
The economic development of Nigeria is also affected as
the revenue meant for different categories of development are
always diverted to the personal pockets of our political leaders.
Hence Negaria (2013), Agbigboa, (2012), Obayelu (2007), Sachs

(2005), and Smith (2007) posit that “the causes of economic woe of
the African continent are the African leaders”. They assert that
“Africa is rich in natural resources endowment and the money that is
accrued from the sale of the mineral resources to other countries that
are supposed to be used to increase the quality of life for Africans
are misappropriated by African leaders”. This is in fact applicable to
Nigerian leaders. Suffice it to say that the accumulation of the
nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously
contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits
abroad. This no doubt has affected capital formation in Nigeria. A
case in point is Abacha’s loot with large sums of millions of dollars
deposited in Swiss banks. This had in fact affected the growth and
development of Nigerian economy.
As already stated above, Urien (2014) asserts that
“corruption deepens poverty and makes it difficult for the ordinary
man in the street to survive as far as his income is concerned”. The
instinct for survival makes it difficult to resist the demands of
corrupt officials. Thus corruption endangers political instability,
breakdown of law and order, brain drain, inefficiency of public
service; and all these affect economic development of the nation in
different dimensions. Regrettably, corruption negatively affects the
socio-cultural values of the Nigerian society as people no longer
value good morals, instead they appreciate any short cut for
achieving wealth irrespective of whether it demands corrupt practice
or not.
Mohammed (2013) gave a summary of how bad
governance/corruption affects economic development adversely in
the new democratic dispensation in Nigeria to include:
 Low social welfare.
 Loss of public trust and legitimacy by the government.
 Increased insecurity.
 Increased poverty, unemployment and low investment
The Way Out From Corruption
Callaghy (1994) asserts that “because of the wide spread of
(petty) and “grand” corruption the international business community
regards the whole of Africa as a sinkhole that swallows their money
with little or no return”. Gray (1996) noted that “one of the reasons

why the measures against corruption have not been fruitful in
Nigeria is that they have operated at a level of more symbolism”.
This is more because those political leaders that wage corruption in
Nigeria are corrupt in themselves. To arrest the problem of
corruption in Nigeria a number of policies have been experimented
such as Judicial Commission of inquiry, Mass Mobilization for
Social Justice and Economic recovery (MAMSER), the Code of
Conduct Bureau, National Open Apprenticeship, War Against
Indiscipline Council (WAIC), Independent Corrupt Practices and
Related Offenses Commission (ICPC) and Economic and Financial
Crimes Commission (EFCC). Thus, in spite of the above good
measures to eradicate corruption in Nigeria, corruption resulting
from bad governance is the bane of the Nigerian society as it has
been rooted in every aspects of the society, since the police officers,
Senators, President and all categories of public servants are not free
from the act.
However, to arrest and eradicate corruption in Nigeria,
there is the need to re-orientate the Nigerian youths who are our
future leaders to start appreciating good moral and social values and
debunk any form of short cut way of acquiring wealth. The Nigeria
government should also provide jobs for the teeming unemployed
graduates so that they can positively feel the impact of the
government. This would in fact help in shaping their mind towards
achieving a better Nigeria free from corrupt practices. In this
direction therefore, the Nigerian police officers of any category
should be upgraded in status and be well trained, well equipped and
well paid and if possible, make police an elite profession that would
be open only to those with good moral standing or character.
Importantly, our mass media should also be in the fore front of
fighting corruption by exposing corrupt political leaders and rogues
in the country and to achieve this there is the need to stress more on
the freedom of the press.
Robert S. McNaamara, former Presidents of the World Bank
and Ford Motor Company, has argued that for any campaign against
corruption to be successful in Sub-Saharan Africa certain
characteristics should be common in the plans against corruption.
His suggestions on how to control corruption in the region include:
1. Require direct, clear and forceful support of the highest
political authority, the president or prime minister;

2. Introduce transparency and accountability in government
functions, particularly in all financial transactions;
3. Encourage a free press and electronic media to forcefully
report to the public on corrupt practices in the society;
4. Organize civil society to address the problems of
corruption brought to the process of transparency and the
activity of the media.
5. Introduce into government watch-dog agencies, anticorruption
bureaus, inspectors general and Auditors general
who will identify corruption practices and bring them to
public attention.
6. Minimize and simplify government regulations,
particularly those involving the issuance of licenses,
permits and preferential positions, thereby restricting
opportunities for rent seeking by corrupt means.
7. Insert anti-bribery clauses into all major procurement
contracts and with the assistance of both international
financial institutions, bidding on African procurement
contracts, accept such clauses and the penalties associated
with their violation.
8. Introduce similar anti-bribery clauses into contracts relating
to privatization of government enterprises, and the
development of natural resources.
9. Ensure that enforcement is predictable and forceful
10. To criminalize the acts of bribery; prohibit the deduction of
bribes for tax purposes; and erect barriers to transfer to
Western financial institutions of financial gains derived
from corrupt practices,
11. Declaration of Assets: The state should require that all
high-level Nigerian officials (Presidents, Ministers,
Legislative officers, Central bank governors, Police and
Customs Chiefs, Military Generals) sign a statement
granting permission to bank (both local and foreign), real
estate or investment house to disclose any personal assets
they may hold.
12. Withholding of Aid: International donors (the IMF and
World Bank) can be helpful by cutting off completely
distribution of assistance to any country marked for high
level corruption.

13. Scrutiny for sources of income: As was pointed out above,
scrutinizing individual depositors of huge sum of money by
financial institutions, for sources would go a long way to
curbing looting of national treasury by civil servants
(Boeninger, 1998).

From the above exposure, it will be observed that
corruption resulting from bad governance is a byproduct of
underdevelopment in most of the developing nations of the world
especially in Nigeria which is the focus of this paper. This is
because most of the funds meant for development are usually
diverted to the personal pockets of our political leaders which
adversely affected many projects in the country; some of them either
abandoned or poorly completed. It could also be observed in
specific terms that political corruption resulting from bad
governance breeds poor social welfare, loss of public trust,
increased insecurity, increased poverty, unemployment and worse
still, low investment. Hence if the above recommendations are
employed they will go a long way to reducing bad governance and
its deadly consequences of corruption.
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Indigenous Music: A Catalyst for National Development
Department of Music
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Throughout history, music has been one of the most common means
by which one expresses his emotions, feelings and sentiments. The
primordial man used music to express fear, pain and danger. In
seventeenth century Europe, music was used to express the state of
the souls. In current day Nigeria, music is a tool for self–
expression. This paper however, appraised indigenous music as an
essential part of the Nigerian culture and its implications for national
development. It discussed music as an important part of culture and
its roles towards achieving vision 20:2020, aimed at positive
development of the country.
Key words: Indigenous music, national development, culture, vision
Music is generally defined as an organized sound that has
its concept varying from one society to another. Everybody in every
culture recognizes music when he hears one or needs it.
Furthermore, music is culture bound, meaning that every culture
decides on what is music. It is the entire culture that determines
what is acceptable as music to its people. Music can be referred to as
an expression or art that is most accessible to human beings in any
situation and in their lives, crisis or calm, recreation or reflection
(Okafor, 2005). It is used as a medium of communication to express

ideas, emotions and melancholic. Music is used to move, mobilize
people and rally them to solidarity. To Plato (400 B.C), “music is
the appropriate means of social and political education”. Music
originally, is one of the mine arts over which the daughter of Zeus
presided in classical Greek mythology.
Generally, music is a phenomenon that cuts across racial,
culture, social, educational and economic barriers, which enhances
cultural appreciation and awareness. It also makes it possible to
experience process from beginning to end, develop both
independence, collaboration, and thereby, provide immediate
feedback and opportunities for reflection. It makes it possible for
one to make use of one’s personal strength in meaningful ways and
to bring in to understanding, sometimes difficult abstractions
through these strengths.
Indigenous music can be seen as a music emanating from a
particular place or country rather than arriving from another place. It
is a term for the music of an original ethnic group that inhabits any
geographical area. It can also be the expression or art that is most
accessible to human beings in any situation in their lives. Indigenous
music is used to influence the lives of an African and everything we
do; even in our traditional occupations like farming, weaving,
blacksmith, carpentry, dyeing, hunting, etc. Africans craftily form
danceable rhythmical patterns with the tools and often complement
the beats evolving through deliberate manipulation of the tools, with
indigenous tune.
The Geography of Nigeria
Nigeria is a land of more than 500 languages and hundreds
of ethnic groups, the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba being the largest.
Nigeria is referred to as the giant of Africa due to her large
population and distinct economic achievements in comparison to
countries that surround her. Nigeria is found in West Africa and
borders Benin, Chad, Cameroun and Niger. It is a fascinating
country made up of 36 states comprising over 500 ethnic groups and
over 500 languages. There are about eight largest ethnic groups in
Nigeria which include,

-The Hausas: They are the biggest ethnic groups in Nigeria with
estimate of 67 million population making up to 25% of the
Nigerian population. Their culture is homogenized. They are
known for raising cattle, and other stock; growing crops and
trading. Their religion is majorly Islam.
The Yoruba: They make up approximately 21% of the population
of Nigeria, making them the second biggest ethnic group in the
country. They are usually Christians and Muslims, though a lot
them still uphold their traditional practices and beliefs. This ethnic
group sticks to many cultural traditions including music and
cultural festivals.

-The Igbo: The Igbo have long been opposed to sharia law in
Nigeria; hence a lot of them are Christians. The Igbos are not
reliant on a centralized society, unlike the Hausas and the Yorubas.
They are mostly dominated by men and women with business
The Ijaw: They live in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria and
contribute around 10% of the population of the country; their land
is rich in oil.
The Kanuri: They are found in the North Eastern part of Nigeria.
Their population is believed to be around 4% of Nigeria’s
population. They are predominantly Muslims. They are believed to
be subjected to violence and Sharia law.
The Fulani: The Fulanis have been intertwined with the Hausa of
Nigeria. This is due to intermarriage between them. Both ethnic
groups make up approximately 29% of the Nigerian population.
Their religion is mostly Islam. They have been the dominant figures
in the politics of Nigeria since independence in 1960.
The Ibibio: They are mostly found in the south eastern Nigeria.
They make up to about 4.5 million which is equivalent to 3.5% of
the population of Nigeria. They are mostly Christians with amazing
artistic culture, mostly known for creating intricate wooden masks
and carvings.

– The Tiv: They are mostly known for their rich agricultural
produce and the trading of their produce. They make up about
3.5% of Nigerian population. They are mostly Christians with few
Muslims and traditionalists. The other ethnic groups include:
Ebora, Edo, Gwari, Jukun and Igala, to mention a few. They are
majorly found in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria.
Nigeria’s Vision 20:2020
The vision 20:2020 is a dream statement that Nigeria will
become one of the first 20 economies in the world by the year
2020. This statement came as a result of the assessment of its
abundant human and material resources and on the assumption that
the country’s resources would be properly managed and channeled
to set economic goals. The then President, Chief Olusegun
Obasanjo, branded the dream as vision 2020 (Onyekakeyah, 2008).
It involves the leadership and direction to galvanize the nation. The
process involves a bottom- up strategic planning to ensure
ownership by all stakeholders.
In the analysis of the federal government blueprint,
(Akpan, 2009) stated that the vision 20:2020 has seven objectives
– To make Nigeria one of the 20-largest economies in the
– To make Nigeria an international finance centre;
– To evaluate Nigeria potentials using development;
– To make Nigeria to be Africa’s financial hub where most
of the international financial transactions in Africa would be
connected with Nigeria;
– To help other African Nations move out of financial
– To move Nigeria out of third world country states to an
industrialized status;
– Generate 60,000 megawatts (mw) of electricity in the year
Indigenous Music and National Development
Dejo (2003) stated that “The study of indigenous music
would on a wider view allow for cultural alignment and continuity

in individual”. Usually, when mention is made of indigenous
music, people tend to look at it from the local entailment that music
provides or perhaps is adding color to the events. However, if the
roles and functions of indigenous music are to be critically
examined, especially to the development of nation, it is clear that
the roles of music have gone beyond the narrow perception of the
less informed. Indigenous music is fully part of manifestation of
cultural heritage of a given society, which provides not only an
outlet for creativity but that of self-expression of noble thoughts
and feelings. Looking critically at the prevailing circumstances in
Nigeria, one can see closely the connection between indigenous
music and education as they play an important role on National
Furthermore, Nigerian indigenous music has a lot of
economic capabilities. This is evident by the increasing record
sales which seem to add tone to Nigeria’s unstable economy. For
instance, statistics has it that in 1981, 4.5 million records were sold
in Nigeria (Gronov and Saunio, 2008). The World Bank estimate of
music sales around the world stood at 6 billion dollars per year. A
quarter of this estimate (1.5 billion dollar) is said to be derived
from African music, especially the indigenous music.
Also, indigenous music and its prospects is a big channel
not only for national development but for providing job and wealth
creation to several individual ranging from song writer, music
publishers, composers, printing companies, cassette, CD,VCD,
DVD manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers of musical
recordings, dealers on musical instruments, studio and stage sound
engineers, musicians, singers, dancers, promoters, talent scouts,
entertainment writers, stage designers, lighting crew, structural
engineers, advertising practitioners media houses and many more
professionals. A lot of income accruing to government coffers
through various taxes across professional lines cannot be overemphasized
(Emelu, 2008).
Culture, however, is a very important heritage of Africa.
According to Ologe (2009), “The need to integrate cultural
activities and values in all spheres of life has been very loudly

pronounced in the post-independence development of Nigeria”. On
the political sphere, many politicians and political parties have
found it expedient to use indigenous music as the medium for
carrying their slogan and through the medium of indigenous music,
communicate to the entire region; the lyrics carry the particular
message of the common Nigeria as well. Indigenous music is,
therefore, paramount in reaching both those in rural and urban
Bottlenecks to National Development
There is a great challenge in maintaining or achieving
developmental balance in Nigeria. This is due to a lot of factors,
which need to be properly harnessed before they yield good results.
They include various schemes and projects that can help to better
the lives of people. They include social services, culture, and
Social Services: If a citizen of a nation grows, certainly it
means the nation itself is growing. Therefore it becomes obvious
that any nation which bears the growth of her citizens at heart, her
utmost target would include fair distribution of social services and
amenities. No nation’s development is complete if the welfare of
the inhabitants is neglected. Therefore, music is one of the basic
social services that need adequate consideration. No nation’s social
life is worth living without music. It sensitizes, criticizes, moulds
character, entertains, communicates and heals. Indigenous music is
an ardent social mobilize, which awakens the society on the events
in the country. Indigenous music, however, alerts the society on the
essential social services around their environment and also sends
signal to the government on the lack of basic amenities for quick
Culture: Culture is another factor of the wheel of development of
any Nation. A society is distinguished from another as a result of
culture. Culture consists of the totality of customs, rituals, norms
and values that regulate the people’s pattern of life. Okafor and
Emeka (2005) define culture as “all the knowledge, beliefs, customs,
values and skills available in a society and by which the society can

be compared to or differentiated from other”. It could also be added
that culture can only be felt through societal expression of it and that
is what portrays the Nation’s identity.
Any nation that respects her culture, normally preserves,
promotes and keeps it alive through social activities. This view
automatically underscores the importance of indigenous music as a
culture promoter. Music performed by every society carries the
social cultural nuances and messages of the society. It is also said
that development is a function of culture because people cannot be
developed outside their experiences and cultural ethos. Through
cultural exhibitions which indigenous music is a part of, the Nation
achieves economic and social growths. This encourages tourism,
inter-ethnic relationship, and provides avenue for foreign exchange.
Any nation that turns her back from or looks down on indigenous
music and dances of her people, is jeopardizing her economy.
Education: It is regarded as the key to nation building. It ranked
second out of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGS),
which aim to achieve primary education with the special target that
by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike will be able to
complete a full course of primary schooling. In Nigeria as it stands
today, education is not receiving the expected attention, most
especially in the areas of performing and creative arts which music
is among. Music is the life wire of the nation’s education policy.
Emenyonu (2004) unequivocally stated that “education is the
biggest industry in Nigeria today, but it is also the most underfunded
and the most under nourished industry” The government schools
around the country have suffered lack of infrastructure, instructional
aids and adequate teaching staff. And indigenous music has been a
useful avenue through which these ills are made known to the
appropriate authorities and the public at large.
It is quite obvious that indigenous music is indispensable in
nation building. It, therefore, becomes imperative that it should be
made an integral part of the school curriculum and offered by every

child in the Nursery, Primary and Secondary schools. Indigenous
music and its practices in each ethnic group in Nigeria should be
properly included in the curriculum content. It is not too late to start
because not starting at all is worse. National development requires
great effort from various angles and indigenous music has proven to
be a very viable one at that. Hence, the government and all
individuals should explore the various opportunities made bare
through this study to help increase the economy of this Nation.
1. The federal Government should reinstate its commitment
towards achieving vision 20:2020 by putting the appropriate
mechanism in place.
2. Cultural week should be part of academic calendar in our
various institutions of learning; this will help cement our rich
cultural heritage to the new generations.
3. Indigenous music should be incorporated as a major part of the
basic Education curriculum due to undeniable role in Nation
4. Nigerian language should be used in teaching indigenous music
especially in our primary and secondary level of education.
Akpan, J. (2009). AES National conference portends insight in the
realization of the Federal Government’s Vision 20:2020.
AES Entrepreneur Digests 3, (1), 35/36
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Emelu, A. (2008). Popular music and Youth empowerment in
Nigerian. The Conference Proceeding of the Professor Femi
Osofisan International Conference on Performance. Ibadan:
University of Ibadan.
Emenyonu, E. N. (2004). Ideas and challenges in Nigeria education.
Enugu: New Generation.

Okafor, R. C. (2005) Music in Nigeria society. Enugu: New
Generation Books.
Okafor, R. C., & Emeka, L. N. (2005). Concept of culture. In
Nigerian People and Culture. Eungu: New Generation.
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http// Retrieved March 07, 2014
Onyekakeyah, L. (2008). Vision 20: 2020 and seven point agenda:


Dr. Joyce N. Mbaebie
Department of Political Science
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
This paper examined the Child’s Right Act and the Right of
Nigerian children. Specifically, the work sought to find out the
extent of commitment by the Nigerian government on the
implementation of the act, the effects of the non-adherence to the
provisions of the Act on the Nigerian child and the impact of
government commitment on the implementation of the Child’s Right
Act. The study was anchored on human need theory. The study
revealed that, the Nigerian government is not seriously committed to
the implementation of the Child’s Right Act; poor implementation
of the Act has also affected Nigerian children adversely. Based on
these findings, the study recommended amongst others that the
government should embark on an aggressive campaign to sensitize
the public on the existence and provisions of the child’s Right Act;
Government should work towards the establishment of Juvenile
courts where young offenders can be tried and made to serve
punishment commensurate with their age; Government should
establish a public child welfare agency which can sue on behalf of a
child who is a victim of abuse.
KEY WORDS: Child’s Right Act, Charter, Conventions,
Welfare, Child-abuse
The need for the Child’s Right Act was identified by the
Children and Young People’s Act (CYPA) before 2003, a law
relating primarily to juvenile justice (Alemika and Chukwuma,
2004). Originally passed by the British colonial government in

1943, the CYPA was later revised and incorporated into Nigeria’s
Federal Laws in 1958 (Alemika and Chukwuma, 2004).
However, Save the children Italy (2003) opined that apart
from the CYPA, Nigeria acceded to several historical international
conventions relevant to the rights and welfare of children ahead of
independence in 1960; some of these laws were the United Nations
Declaration on Human Rights of 1948, the convention for the
suppression of Traffic in person’s and of the Exploitation of the
prostitution of others 1949, and its 1956 amendment. These
conventions and CYPA, were at the root of several articles adopted
by the country to safeguard the rights of its citizens. Some of these
articles were the Northern Nigerian Penal Code (Northern States),
Federal Provisions Act, 1960 (the Penal Code), and the Southern
Nigeria Criminal Code Act, chapter 77, laws of the Federation of
Nigeria, 1960 (the Criminal Code). It is worthy to note that these
two laws still exist and are enforced in the country (Save the
Children Italy, 2003).
In the penal code in Northern Nigeria, trafficking is
specifically referred to in section 279 and punished by 14years
imprisonment, while the anti-trafficking related crimes of
kidnapping and abduction of children (section 271 – 272) and
slavery in general (section 279) may be punished with 10 – 14 years
imprisonment. Exploitation for sexual purposes appears to be
covered by the offences of procuring a woman or girl for an
immoral purpose, which is punished by up to 7 years imprisonment
(section 281), becoming 10 years where the girl is under 18 years of
age (section 275). Boys are implicitly included in section 278, which
punishes who buys, sells, hires or obtains or disposes of possession
of anyone under 18 years for employment in prostitution or other
unlawful or immoral purposes, though it is not clear what the actual
punishment is (save the children Italy, 2003).
The criminal code, on the other hand, has less severe
punishment, though it does allow for the extra-territoriality of some
offences and punishment; slavery-related offences with 14years
imprisonment; penalties for procuring girls (under I8 years) for
prostitution in or outside Nigeria range from imprisonment for two
years (sections 222A and 223) to three years where fraud is involved
(section 227), and one extra year where intimidation is used to
subject victims (section 366) (save the children Italy, 2003).

With regards to these laws including the CYPA, Alemika
and Chukwu (2004) argued that their “legal provisions fell short of
the rights afforded by the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare
of the Child (ACRWC), the United Nations Convention on the
Rights of the Child (CRC), and the United Nations minimum rules
for the administration of juvenile justice”. These international
instruments, particularly the CRC which was ratified in 1989 and
came into force in 1990 and the ACRWC adopted in 1990, sought to
lay down a new child protective system which would allow
opportunities for the participation of children in matters that concern
their rights and welfare (Representing children worldwide, 2005). In
order to achieve this, participating countries were therefore required,
in line with the provisions of the international conventions, to
promulgate a law that will address the peculiar needs of children by
ensuring their survival, development, protection and participation. In
fact, UNICEF (2007) summarizes the kind of laws that participating
countries were mandated by the International instruments to
promulgate as those which “reflect children as human beings and as
subjects of their own rights”. Nigeria signed both international
instruments, that is, the convention on the Rights of the child (CRC)
and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
(ACRWC) in 1990 and 2001 respectively (Anaba, 2003).
However, while Nigeria is a signatory without reservation
to CRC and the ACRWC, the conventions had not been
incorporated into domestic law thus had no legal force in Nigeria.
As a result, in 1992, the Nigerian chapter of the African Network for
the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (a
conglomerate of over 60 different NGOs committed to child
development) organized three conferences with the ministries of
Justice, Health and social welfare in conjunction with UNICEF to
produce new draft laws on protecting children in Nigeria in line with
the principles enshrined in the convention on the Rights of the child
and the African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child
(Ajayi, 2006).
But it was only after about ten years with several Heads of
Government and heated debated by the parliamentarians that the
draft Bill was eventually passed into law by the National Assembly
in July 2003. It was assented to by the President of the Federal

Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo in September 2003,
and promulgated as the Child’s Right Act 2003 (UNICEF, 2007).
Despite the existence of this law, the rights of the child in
Nigeria are far from being respected as many of them are still denied
sound education, adequate nutrition, health care, etc or exploited as
child labourers, sexually abused and ravaged beyond their years by
hard living and drug on the streets. Therefore, this paper seeks to
examine the child’s Right Act and its impact on the right of Nigerian
children. The study will also find out the extent to which the
Nigerian government is committed to the implementation of these
Conceptual Framework
Who is a Child?
A child is defined as “a young human being who is not yet
an adult”. This definition is a biological one in the sense that it
views a child as anyone in the developmental stage of childhood,
between infancy and adulthood, or “between birth and puberty”. At
that stage of life a child is either classified as a boy or a girl against
an adult who is classified into man or woman (Wikipedia, 2008).
There is also a social definition which describes the term
“child’ in terms of relationship with a parent or authority figure or in
relation to group membership in a clan, tribe or religion (Wikipedia,
2008). According to the social definition, “a person can be called a
child by his or her parents or any authority figure he/she is under, by
virtue of his membership to a group, clan, tribe, or religion, no
matter how old he or she is” (Simple English Wikipedia, 2008).
Although the biology and social definitions are possible attempts at
explaining who a child is, both definitions are inadequate when
trying to determine who a child is under the law for the purpose of
formulating and implementing polices that apply to children. The
reason for this inadequacy is that in most countries,
Children go to school. Also, smaller children may
enjoy going to play-time groups and also playing
with small toys and using their imaginations to
make their days more fun. But in other countries,
children work in factories or in the fields with their
parents or guardians. (Simple English Wikipedia,

The point being stressed here is that there are many places
where children are made to take on the responsibilities of adults. In
such places, children are given out in marriage when they are still
young and psychologically handicapped to understand and challenge
the complex nature of family life, children engage in one kind of
economic activity or the other to earn a living or provide for the
respective families and children are also held responsible for their
actions and, are therefore, made to face the same sanction as adults
(UNICEF, 2007). It is as a result of this deficiency in capturing who
a child is from a much specific sense for the purpose of formulating
and implementing polices that apply to him/her that a legal
definition became imperative. However, research has revealed that
the legal definition of a child just like the social and biological
definition, still poses a problem in determining policies that should
apply to children. The reason for this is obvious: different countries
operate different laws which are in a larger sense a reflection of their
valves, norms and customs. As a result of the discrepancy associated
with the legal definition, Bagpai (2007) argued that “the trouble with
child rights begins with the very definition of a child in law”.
However, the United Nations Convention on the Right of
the Child (CRC) in 1989 tried to provide a way forward in this
direction by adopting in its article I, a working definition of a child
as “every human being below the age of I8 years, unless, under the
law applicable to child, majority is attained earlier”. By using the
age limit criterion and grating individual countries the discretion to
determine by law whatever age is appropriate in determining who a
child is, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the child
(ratified at the time of its formulation by 192 of 194 countries), sets
the pace for other countries to; follow.
In India, for instance, a child attains majority at the age of
18 even though there are several grey areas such as the Indian child
labour regulations which classifies a child as “a person under 14
years of age” (Bagpia, 2004). In Bangladesh, the women and
children oppression prevention Act of 2000 deems a child to be a
person under the age of 14 (Rahman, 2005).
In the United States of America, there are numerous laws
that prohibit certain categories of children from indulging in certain
activities which are considered inimical to their growth and

development. These laws are as many as there are states in the
United States as every state formulates its own set of laws.
However, the federal law recognizes a child as any person who is
under the age of 18 (Guggenheim, 2005). In Nigeria, the child’s
Right Act which was passed into law in 2003 defines a child as one
who is below the age of eighteen years (UNICEF, 2007). With
respect to the use of age limits in determining who a child is Bagpai
(2007) opines that:
Age limits are a formal reflection of society’s
judgment about the evolution of children capacities
and responsibilities. Almost everywhere age limits
formally regulate children’s activities. When they
leave school, when they can vote, when they can be
treated as adults by the criminal justice system;
when they can join the armed forces; and when they
can work. But age limits differ from activity to
activity, and from country to country.
But we must note at this juncture, that notwithstanding the
differences that exist in the use of age limits in determining when
childhood ceases, nearly all countries and cultures share the view
that children are the most vulnerable members of the society
because they are physically and psychologically less able to define
themselves (Bagpai, 2007).
Theoretical Framework
The study takes its bearing from the tenets of the Human
Needs Theory. The position of human needs theory is similar to that
of frustration, aggression and relative deprivation theory. Its main
assumption is that all human beings have basic human needs which
they seek to fulfill, and that the denial and frustration of these needs
by other groups or individual could affect them immediately or later
thereby leading to conflict. Basic human needs, in this sense
comprise physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. In
essence, to provide access to one (e.g. food) and deny or hinder
access to another (e.g. freedom of worship) will amount to denial
and could make people to resort to violence in an effort to protect
these needs (Obikeze, 2009).
Therefore, it is the duty of the society to train the child,
provide their basic needs and also protect the child from harm and

deprivation since the children are considered to be an integral part of
the society and are needed for the continued growth and
development of the society. It is the contention of this study that the
children should be taken care of both physically, morally and
mentally, because they are the ones that would later run the society
with all the experiences they acquired as they are growing up. To
further show how important the children population is to the society
as a whole, the United Nations International Children’s Emergency
Fund (1995) contended that “Without National program that enable
children grow up to realize their full potentials in health, peace and
dignity, true national development is impossible”. In the same vein,
Ajayi (2006) argued that “the protection and promotion of the rights
of the child as well as the nation at large, and the way right of a
child is handled in a country shows what the future holds for such a
child and the nation. The increase in the number of poor beggarly
children in Nigerian cities, the number of children without basic
education, and the number of children in one form of servitude or
the other indicate a nation’s level of development. In a nutshell,
securing the future of a child is securing the future of a nation.
Forms of Child Abuse
The Human Resources office of the Diocese of Wilmington
(2008) provided a list of the different forms in which child abuse is
perpetrated in different parts of the world.
i. Engaging in sexual activity with a child.
ii. Denial of proper or necessary subsistence education, medical care,
or other care necessary for the child’s health.
iii. Use of restraint procedures on a child that cause injury or pain.
iv. Administration of prescriptive drugs or medication without the ongoing
super-vision of a licensed physician.
v. Providing alcoholic beverages or controlled substances.
vi. Commission of any act, other than by accidental means, that
threatens or results in any injury or death to the child.
These types of child abuse are grouped under three (3) different
forms/kinds of child abuse the highlight of which concludes:

i. Physical Abuse: Which has been described as any non-accidental
physical injury to a child caused by an adult, which results in or
threatens serious injury. Often adults who physically abuse children
do not intent to seriously injure the children, but get carried away by
anger and frustration in their own lives. Neglect is also another form
of physical abuse. It is the failure of a parent or guardian to provide
a child with adequate food, clothing with adequate care, education
or supervision. Neglect is a chronic problem often resulting not from
poverty, but from lack of knowledge as to the proper care required
by children.
ii. Sexual Abuse: This is any physical contract with a child by an adult
or older child in a position of power over the child for the sexual
gratification of the adult or older child. Other terms for sexual abuse
include child molestation, incest (if the abuser is a member of the
child’s family) or child pornography. Usually, child sexual abuse is
not violent, and the child knows the abuser.
iii. Emotional Abuse: This is an important factor in all forms of child
abuse. To be hurt so much by someone who should care and protect
is very damaging to the emotional development of a child. Adults
who do not physically harm a child may cause emotional harm by
using words which threaten harshly, criticize, ridicule or harass
(Human Resources Office, Diocese of Wilmington 2008).
Virtually all countries, both developing and developed have
recorded numerous cases of child abuse. In the last decade, for
instance, an estimated two million children were killed in armed
conflict, many of them by some of the 100 million landmines
thought to be concealed in 62 countries, and more than half of this
number are located in Sub-Sahara Africa. And a total of, perhaps,
four to five million more have been disabled as a result of their
experience in war, particularly in war-front parts of Africa (Liberia,
Sierra – Leone, Sudan, etc) and more than 12 million made
homesless (Abereijo, 2005).
The condition of children in Africa should be a source of
concern to many considering the fact that about 300 million children
under the age of fifteen live in Africa and this number is almost half
of the continents population (Salami, 2003). However, it is not only
in Africa that we find conditions that constitute great threats to the
growth and development of children. These conditions also abound

in most develop parts of Asia, the Americas and Europe. For
instance, it is estimated that the number of children under 18
involved in prostitution exceeds two million, one million of whom
are in Asia, and 300,000 in the United State (Abereijo, 2005).
Furthermore, Children Rights (2008) noted that child abuse
and neglect is far too common in the United States. In 2004, there
i. 3 million reports of child abuse and neglect,
ii. 872,000 children confirmed victims of abuse and neglect,
iii. 65% experienced neglect,
iv. 18% experienced physical abuse,
v. 10% experienced sexual abuse,
vi. 7% experienced emotional maltreatment,
vii. Almost 1,500 deaths due to child abuse and neglect,
viii. About 350 deaths of children already known to the public child –
welfare system.
In Nigeria, the case is no less different as Ajayi (2006)
argued that “many children are still victims of obnoxious cultural
practices like early marriages in the northern parts of the country
and female circumcision (the victim in this case is the girl child)”.
There has also been a tremendous increase in the number of children
destitute on Nigerian streets who survive by doing menial jobs and
begging for alms. Many children in Nigeria lack the basic and
necessary subsistence education, food, shelter, medical care, etc.
According to Defence for children international (DCI) – a nongovernmental
international organization concerned with the welfare
of children, the condition of children in Nigeria should attract the
sympathy of the world because:
i. Over 70% of Nigerian children live in abject poverty,
ii. Over 80% lack access to medical care,
iii. Over 89% are malnourished,
iv. Over 90% lack access to sound education,
vi Six out of every ten Nigeria children die before their tenth
birthdays as a result of
preventable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis and

vi. The percentage of children who are orphaned as a result of
child abandonment is on the increase,
vii. Over 60% of Nigeria children under the age of 18 have
been subjected to one form of abuse or the other
particularly sexual abuse,
viii. Nigerian children, particularly those living in the Niger
Delta Region of the country have experienced one form of
brutality or the other either from law enforcement agents or
from the militants who have taken over the area,
ix. Over 60% of Nigerian children live apart from their parents
as maids in other people’s homes,
x. Children in the Niger Delta suffer from the environmental
degradation such as gas flaring inflicted on them by the
multinational oil corporations in the area (Defence for
Children International, 2008).
xi. Trafficking in Nigerian children is on the increase both
within and across the nation’s boundary (Defence for
children International, 2008).
The plight of Nigerian children generates a greater source
of worry and concern when we consider the fact that they constitute
nearly half of the country’s 140 million people (Defence for children
International, 2008). In response to the global distress of children,
the United Nations in November 1989 ratified and adopted the
convention on the rights of the children which came into force on 2
September 1990, in accordance with article 49 of the convention.
According to the United Nations Department of Public information
(1995), the initiative for the convention came from the government
of Poland, which submitted a draft convention to the commission on
Human Rights in 1978, prior to the celebration of the 20th
anniversary of the Declaration on the Rights of the child during the
international year of the child in 1979. (The UN Dept. of Public
Information 1995).
According to the United Nations Department of Public
Information (1995), this effort by the Polish government led to a
decade of collaboration between a small group of NonGovernmental
Organizations, including Radda Barnen of Sweden, the International
Child Catholic Bureau, and Defence for Children International, and
United Nations Human Rights experts. And after a lengthy period of
careful negotiations, the convention on the Rights of the child was

adopted in November 1989 by a vote of the General Assembly (The
UN Dept. of Public Information).
In recognition of the fact that in all countries in the
exceptionally difficult conditions, and that, such children need
special attention and consideration, the convention has mandated
number of states to “understand all appropriate legislation and
administration and offer measures for the implementation of the
rights recognized in the present convention. With regards to
economic, social and cultural rights, states, parties shall undertake
such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources
and where needed, within the framework of international cooperation”
(The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989).
In July 1990, the then OAU Assembly for Heads of States
and Governments followed suit by adopting the African Union
Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (CRWC) (UNICEF,
2007). Nigeria is a signatory to both international instruments (i.e.
the convention on the Rights of the child since 1991 and the African
charter on the Rights and welfare of the child since 2001). Also in
2001 the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS),
of which Nigeria is also a part, took a proactive step towards
developing regular action plans and promoting regional co-operation
on trafficking issues, including a peer preview on the situation of
children. These action plans were assented to by all ECOWAS
Heads of State and Government and proclaimed as the Declaration
on the Defense of a Culture of Rights of the Child in West Africa
These international instruments alongside with the
activities of some Non-Governmental Human Rights Organizations
like Save the Child Italy, Representing Children Worldwide, etc (the
activities of NGOs will be subject of subsequent chapters), have
been largely responsible for some landmark legislations on child’s
rights such as the Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act 2003, which
provided for the creation of the National Agency for the Prohibition
of Traffic in Persons and Other Related Offences (NAPTIP), the
labour Act, the Child’ Rights Act 2003 (UNICEF, 2007).
However, the focus of our study is on the Child’s Rights
Act, how it has fared since it was introduced since 2003.

The Implementation of the Act by the Nigerian Government
The child shall enjoy special protection and shall be given
opportunities and facilities of law and other means to enable him to
develop physically, mentally, spiritually and socially in a healthy
and normal manner and on condition of freedom and dignity. In
enactment of laws for this purpose, the best interest of the child shall
be the paramount consideration.
Nigerian government to an extent is making some effort
towards the implementation of the child’s Right Act. Some states
have started implementing the Act while about 15 states are yet to
pass the child’s Right Act 2003, and the failure to pass the Act in
those states has made children victims of various crimes such as
physical and sexual abuse, early marriage, child labour and
trafficking, and preventing children from going to school. Children
are vulnerable. Many adults take advantage of the non-passage of
the CRA and the innocence and ignorance of children, to trample on
their rights. Therefore, the Nigerian government in order to
ameliorate this problem to an extent democratized educational
opportunities through free education policy like Universal Basic
Education (UBE). This policy granted free and compulsory
education for children starting from primary to junior secondary
school. This helps to reduce the issue of children being involved in
child labour and other offences.
Government has also promulgated laws banning child
abuse and trafficking. Some punishments were also spelt out for the
culprits. The non-governmental organizations (NGOs) also help the
government for the sensitization of the public on the child’s rights
and these offences.
A drastic effort is being made by the government to reduce
child mortality through improved healthcare, for example, intensive
immunization programmes because both education and health are
basic human rights in themselves and an indispensable means of the
realization of other human rights. Implementing children’s health
rights by the government of Nigeria implies ensuring reduction in
infant and child mortality rate through provision of necessary
medical assistance and healthcare to all children and the provision of
adequate nutrition and safe water. Others include combating
diseases, appropriate care for expectant and nursing mothers and

integrating basic healthcare programmes into national development
The government also is making drastic efforts to reduce
population growth through free family planning programme for the
citizens. Large family size is known to affect children adversely,
especially those from low socio-economic background. However, in
spite of the efforts being made towards implementing the child’s
right act, the Nigerian government is not seriously committed
towards the implementation of the Act, This is as a result of the
following reasons: Poverty: The issue of poverty is at alarming stage
and has eaten deep into the fabrics of the society. Poor families are
unlikely to care for their children and as a result of this they give out
their children for child labour, hawking among others.
Secondly, children in Nigeria are still being abused and
trafficked into different countries to work or for sexual exploitations
and other nefarious acts because of no serious effort by the
government to enforce relevant laws prohibiting such offences in
Nigeria. Also, the health care facilities available in the country are
not adequate. The right to health of the Nigeria child is thereby
hardly realizable not because the resources are not available, but
because the state has not been diligent in the implementation of
these rights. Primary Health care should be given adequate attention
through a special funding arrangement of direct charge on the
consolidated revenue. Children in Nigeria, lack access to sound
medical attentions resulting in the death of many children. One of
the major diseases ravaging the Nigerian child is the Vesico Vaginal
Fistula (VVF) – a common disease among under-aged girls who are
allowed to marry in both the Northern and Southern parts of the
country. Reports indicate that aged men still take young girls below
the age of 15 as wives, for instance, Senator Yerima’s marriage with
a minor; thereby denying them education and exposing them to
many risk associated with child delivery at a premature age, one of
which is the VVF (Anaba, 2003).
Another preventable disease that has accounted for the
death of many children is malaria. According to a report by
UNICEF in 2001, malaria remains by far the most common cause of
infant mortality in Nigeria. Malaria accounted for over 30 percent of
diseases and deaths among Nigerian children (According to report
entitled “Children and Women Rights in Nigeria: A wake Up Call,

Situation Assessment and Analysis 2001). Other common diseases
that lead to the death among children in the country and their degree
of severity are vaccine preventable diseases (VCP). 22 percent,
Diarrhea – 19 percent Acute Respiratory Tract infection (ART), 16
percent, Typhoid – 3 percent and others-8 percent (Okumephuna,
2003). Government is not making serious effort towards eradicating
these healthcare problems.
Apart from children who die through these diseases there
are many others who get physically or mentally scarred for life. And
many of such children who are from poor homes also end up being
denied education. Observers believe that the future of this
generation of children really looks bleak since they are denied the
basic necessities of life. It is also feared that in years to come, the
over six million children who are out of school (2.5 million of this
number are situated in Lagos states) would have become prostitutes,
robbers, area boys or unable to earn a decent living. And when a
country has a large number of people who are social deviants, it may
become very difficult for the society to exercise control over them.
(Vanguard, 2005).
Effects of the Non-Adherence to the Provisions of the Act.
In Nigeria’s philosophy of education, it is recognized that
“every Nigeria child should have a right to equal educational
opportunities irrespective of any real or imagined disabilities each
according to his or her ability (NPE, 2004). Already as a result of
inadequate provision, there is now an increase in children’s level of
involvement in crime. Media reports indicate that most of the
violent crimes committed in Nigeria today are carried out by either
young adults or teenagers. One media source citing the police
reported that three out of every 10 criminals arrested in the big cities
of Lagos, Ibadan, Kano and Onitsha are under the age of 18 (Anaba,
These young criminals often use powerful firearms
including machine guns and tend to be ruthless in their operations,
terrorizing communities, hijacking vehicles at gun point and often
shooting to kill in the course of conducting robbery attacks or
hijacks. A reflection of this state of urban quasi-anarchy is the
prevalence of such groups as the area boys in Lagos, the Yandaba
boys in Kaduna, as well as, their other counter parts in other cities,

as well as, the touts who operate virtually in all-places of public
activities from motor parks to consulates. Given this kind of
situation, therefore, many observers and those in government
believe that the only way the society’s future can be protected from
this type of unfolding anarchy is by formulating a comprehensive set
of laws that will cater for the needs of the child. Hence the child’s
rights Act of 2003 (Anaba, 2003). Also non-adherence to the
provisions of the Act will lead to conflict in homes and schools.
There will be increase in dropout rate with the result that the country
becomes educationally disadvantaged
Constraints on the Effective Implementation of the Act.
The drafted child’s Right Bill was passed into law by the
National Assembly in July, 2003. It was assented to by the then
President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun
Obasanjo in September 2003, and promulgated as the child’s Right
Act 2003. (UNICEF, 2007). Since the passage of the child’s Right
Act in Abuja, the law appears to have differing levels of acceptance
and implementation among Nigerian states: Abuja territory, Abia,
Anambra, Bayelsa, Ebonyi, Ekiti, Imo, Jigawa, Kwara, Lagos,
Nassarawa, Ogun, Ondo, Plateau, Rivers and Taraba States are areas
where the law has been adopted as a state law. However, there are
reports that the law has had little true effect on child’s rights across
Nigeria due to effective implementation strategies and lack of public
awareness and non recognition by some states particularly the
Muslim states of the North-West (Representing Children
Worldwide, 2005).
The issue of bad or poor economy is another constraint to
the implementation of the child’s Rights Act. The economy is so bad
that government cannot have enough money to provide the needs of
the child. Corruption is another hindrance or obstacle towards
implementation of the Act. Even when government provides the
money for necessary facilities, they are embezzled.
More so, lack of commitment is another impediment
towards the implementation of the Act. The various agencies
(national and international) responsible for the implementation of
the Act are not leaving up to expectations. The government is not
making serious effort towards punishment of offenders. Because
there has not been any severe punishment for culprit as a result, the

society denies the children their rights. Finally, ignorance among the
citizens is another obstacle. Because people are ignorant of the
existence of the Act, and as a result, do not know when their rights
are being infringed upon.
Impact of Government on the Implementation of the Child’s
Right Act.
To enhance effective implementation of the Act, the
dignity of the child shall be respected at all times. The impact of
government commitment should include the following:
i. Provisions of freedom from discrimination on the grounds of
belonging to a particular community or ethnic group, place of origin,
sex, religion, the circumstances of birth, disability, deprivation or
political opinions should be respected.
ii. No Nigerian child should be subjected to physical, mental or
emotional injury, abuse or neglect, maltreatment, torture,
inhuman or degrading punishment, attacks on his/her honour or
iii. Every Nigerian child should entitled to rest, leisure and enjoyment
of the best attainable state of physical, mental and spiritual health.
iv. Every government in Nigeria should strive to reduce infant mortality
rate, provide medical and health care, adequate nutrition and safe
drinking water, hygienic and sanitized environments, combat
diseases, and development of primary health care for children,
v. Provisions for children in need of special protection measures
(mentally physically challenged, or street children). They should be
protected in a manner that would enable them achieve their fullest,
possible social integration, and moral development.
vi. Expectant and nursing mothers should be catered for, and every
parent or guardian having legal custody of child under the age of
two years should ensure his/her immunization against diseases, or
face judicial penalties.
vii. Betrothal and marriage of children should be prohibited
viii. Child abduction and forced exploitative labour (which is not a right
nature), or in an industrial undertaking should also be offences. The
exceptions to these provisions are where the child is employed by
family members in a work that is of an agricultural or horticultural
or domestic in nature, and such a child should not be required to

carry or move anything heavy that is likely to adversely affect
his/her moral, mental, physical, spiritual or social development.
ix. Buying, selling, hiring or otherwise dealing in children for the
purpose of begging, hawking prostitution or for unlawful immoral
purposes should be made punishable by long term of imprisonment.
Other offences to be considered grave should include sexual abuse,
general exploitation, which is prejudicial to the welfare of the child,
recruitment into the armed forces and the importation or exposure of
children to harmful publications. Government should further
preserves the continued application of all criminal law provisions
securing the child whether born or unborn.

The findings in this study are summarized as follows:
1. The Nigerian government is not seriously committed to the
implementation of the Child’s Right Act.
2. The non adherence to the Child’s Right Act by the Nigerian
government has affected the Nigerian child adversely.
3. Lack of fund, corruption, poor economy, lack of commitment and
awareness etc are serious obstacles towards the implementation of
the child’s Right Act in Nigeria.
4. The rights of the child are still being abused with impunity
5. The school curriculum is bereft of issues on the rights of the child.
6. There is no provision for destitute children.

The child’s Rights Act 2003 was enacted to address the problem of
child abuse in Nigeria. This move was made in compliance to other
international instruments for the welfare and rights of the child to which
Nigeria was a signatory. But after seven years since it was enacted, the rights
of the child in Nigeria remain ever bleak. Children are still seen on major
streets in Nigeria hawking; many children are still out of school and even
those who are in school lack qualitative education. Children are still seen
begging for alms, and many children are victims of sexual and physical
The factors militating against the effective implementation of the
Act have been identified as the lack of public awareness of the existence of
the Act, poor economy, corruption and inadequate implementation strategies.
The government and other human rights organizations must therefore ensure
that all necessary steps and measures are taken to protect rights of children by
enlightening the public on the provisions of the Act. They should also work
towards establishing agencies that would be ever ready to accept petitions
with respect to the child.

On the basis of the findings in this study the following recommendations
are made:-
1. The government should be seriously committed to the
implementation of the Act. It should embark on an aggressive
campaign to sensitize the public on the existence and provisions of
the Child’s Right Act.
2. Government should work towards the establishment of Juvenile
courts where young offenders can be tried and made to serve
punishment commensurate with their age.
3. Government should establish a public child welfare agency which
can sue on behalf of a child who is a victim of abuse.
4. Human Rights Organizations are to assist the government in this
5. The curriculum should be revised to include issues on the rights of
the child.
6. Government should endeavors to send periodically, a team of
assessors to various schools. Their job would be to assess the quality
of teaching and learning in the school system and make
recommendations for improvement.
7. Government should establish a home for destitute children.
Ajaiyi E. (2006) “Child Rights in Nigeria: Problem and Panacea”
http://www.Sitesunu .adu/ic/a/ums/wpcontent/
uplands/2006/10/ esther.PDF.
Alemika, E.O. and Chukwuma, I. (2004) “Report on the Rights of
the child in Nigeria.” The Centre for Law Enforcement
Education (CLEEN) Lagos, Nigeria in association with the

World Organization Against Torture, organization Mondale
center La Torture, Geneva, Switzerland, http://www.
Clean. Org/Nigeria-Ngo-report-omct PDF.
Anaba, E. (2003) “Why the Child Rights Bill Must be Passed into
Law” Vanguard, Friday, 16 May, 2003.
Bajpai, A. (2007) “who is a child?” http:/-
infochangeindia.Org/200706186472/ Age-nda/childrights-
Child Welfare League of Nigeria (2001) “Rights and Obligations of
the Child”‘http: llwww. Crin. Org/resources/ info Detail.
Asp? 1D= 1396.
Child’s Rights (2008) “Child Abuse and Neglect”
Defence for Children International (2008) “The World’s Children
in Global Distress”http://www. Dei. Org/ 2008/articles
100491. Html.
Diocese of Wilmington, Human Resources Department. (2008)
“What’s is ChildAbuse?”‘http://www. Cdow.
Org/FSGS/volunteers. PDF.
Guggenheim, M. (2005). What’s wrong with Children’s Right?”
Harvard: Harvard University Press.
Mclean, I. and McMillan, A.(eds). (2003) Oxford Concise
Dictionary cf Polities: New your: Oxford University Press.
Obikeze, O.S.A, (2009), “Building trust and cooperation between
Diverse for conflicting forces within the community”. In
Dynamics of Public Sector Management in Nigeria
Obikeze, O.S.A, (Eds.) Enugu: Rhyce kerex publishers Nig.
Okumephuna, C. (2005) “A Case for Children” Guardian,
Wednesday, September 7, 2005.
Rehan, B.(2005) “Who is A child?” http: llwww.boloji
com/wfsz/wfsz40. htm.
Representing Children Worldwide (2005) “How Children’s voices
are Heard in Child Protective Proceedings” http:
llwww.rew.0rg/articles/ 05/ how children’s – voices- are
heard-in-child- protective-proceedings. Html.
Salami, I. (2002) “Children’s Participation in the Development
Process, the Theatre for Development Approach” llah,s
Theatre, Politics and Social Consciousness in Nigeria. Ibo

Darv caltop. Save the children Italy (2003)” Nigeria
integrated Desk Review”. http://wws.
Save the Children, Italy/2003/dowuload/publication trafficking
Nigeria/Nigeria Desk. Review. PDF.
Simple English Wikipedia (2008) “the Child” http//simple
Wikipedia org/wiki/Children 2008.
United Nations International Children Emergency Fund (2007) In
Formation Sheet: “The Child’s Rights Act” http//www.
UNICEF. Org/wcaro-Nigeria-face-sheet-cra.Pdf.
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (1985)
State of the Worlds Children” New York: UNICEF.
Vanguard (2005) “The Nigeria Child'” A future so bleak”
http://www.Online Nigeria com articles/ad.asp?Blurb=??


Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria: A Review of
Government Policy Measures
Barr. Bartholomew S. Okeke, Ph.D
Department of Economics
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
This paper examined the role of Foreign direct Investment in
Nigeria and policy measures that can be put in place to allow
smooth attraction of the foreign investment in Nigeria such as
creating enabling macro-economic environment and friendly
monetary and fiscal policy measures. The paper also examined the
major initial argument for and against foreign direct investment in
Nigeria and other developing countries of the world such as
encouraging local industries to benefit from the expertise labour
employed in the foreign based firm (argument for) and destroying
the local industries through stifling competitors (argument against).
The paper as well examined the inhibiting factors that would
negatively affect and debar foreign direct investors from investing in
Nigerian economic environment. It also reviewed some of the policy
measures already put in place by the government to attract foreign
investment. The paper finally made some recommendations on how
to deal with some of the inhibiting factors so as to encourage foreign
direct investors to invest in Nigeria. These include among others:
that the Nigeria government should reach agreement with the
creditor nations in the issue of rescheduling her debt and that a good
enabling macro-economic environment should be created to favour
not only the local or domestic industries but also the foreign based


In the past, the increased interest on the issue of investment
liberalization and desirability or otherwise of an international
framework on investment policy and rules has been sparked off by
the proposal of the developed countries to introduce a legally
binding international regime on foreign investment. The need for
external capital flows either by donor countries or direct foreign
investment occurs when investment exceed the actual savings and
also as a result of investment with long gestation of period that
generate non-monetary returns, growing government expenditure
that are non-tax financed as well as when real savings are lower than
the potential savings due to repressed financial markets and capital
flights (Essien & Onwiodukie, 1999).
By definition, foreign direct investment refers to the
package of foreign resources, capital reinvested earnings or net
borrowing of subsidiaries of foreign companies from their parents
companies or affiliates (Njoku, 2015). No doubt the flow of such
investment into the developing countries economies always
involved the transfer of scarce resources in the form of capital
(fund), technology, management and marketers expertise with the
sole aim of acquiring a controlling interest in the management of
that enterprise without having majority shareholding. It is of interest
to note that foreign direct investment (FDI) differs from portfolio
investment. This is because in the case of direct investment by the
foreign investors, the investors assume management of such
enterprises. Portfolio investment is system of foreign investment
whereby final manager or capital owner purchases a basket of
securities in such a nation as to reduce the risk of investment and
ensure maximum return. That portfolio investment involves a
foreign investors.
Generally foreign direct investment may not wholly benefit
the host country and that is the reason why host countries should
adopt a strategy that strikes a reasonable balance between using
foreign direct investment on the one hand and other forms of capital
flow on the other hand for achieving economic growth and
development. The central reason for striking such a balance is due
to obvious reason that enterprises financed by foreign investors are
usually foreign controlled and such practice is usually to make the

enterprise operations to deviate from the economic and development
goals of the host economy.
Thus a foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in
the form of a controlling ownership of a business in one country by
an entity based in another country. It is thus distinguished from a
foreign portfolio investment by a notion of direct control. The origin
of the investment does not impact the definition, as an FDI: the
investment may be made either “inorganically” by buying a
company in the target country or “organically” by expanding the
operations of an existing business in that country.
Broadly, foreign direct investment includes “mergers and
acquisitions, building new facilities, reinvesting profits earned from
overseas operations, and intra company loans”. In a narrow sense,
foreign direct investment refers just to building new facility, and a
lasting management interest (10 percent or more of voting stock) in
an enterprise operating in an economy other than that of the
investor. FDI is the sum of equity capital, long-term capital, and
short-term capital as shown in the balance of payments. FDI usually
involves participation in management, joint-venture, transfer of
technology and expertise. Stock of FDI is the net (i.e. outward FDI
minus inward FDI) cumulative FDI for any given period. Direct
investment excludes investment through purchase of shares.
FDI, a subset of international factor movements, is
characterized by controlling ownership of a business enterprise in
one country by an entity based in another country. Foreign direct
investment is distinguished from foreign portfolio investment, a
passive investment in the securities of another country such as
public stocks and bonds, by the element of “control”. According to
the Financial Times, “Standard definitions of control use the
internationally agreed 10 percent threshold of voting shares, but this
is a grey area as often a smaller block of shares will give control in
widely held companies. Moreover, control of technology,
management, even crucial inputs can confer de facto control”.
The Trend of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
Generally, the real foreign direct investment in Nigeria
over the years has been unstable. For instance, it rose from $534.8
million in 1970 to $841.9 million in 1973. It later fell down by 40.4
percent in 1974 ($501.9) million. It later rose by 48.5 percent

($745.1 million) in 1975. However a decline of 21.7 percent was
recorded in 1995. In 1977 it increased to 21.6 percent ($709.2). By
1980 Nigeria recorded a negative foreign direct investment of $67.5
million which represented 7.9 percent decrease from 1979 and the
decline continued throughout 1984. The foreign direct investment
increased in the oil industry since it accounted for a greater
percentage of foreign direct investment (Essien & Onwuduiokit,
1999). Interestingly, foreign direct investment has been on the
increase following the adoption of Structural Adjustment
Programme (SAP) in 1986 and subsequent liberalization of certain
aspects of the Nigeria economy.
This increase did not include the year 1990 when a decline
of 68.6 percent was recorded.
Ekpo (1996) stated that “empirical studies have identified the major
causes of decline in Nigeria foreign direct investment at that period
to economic crisis, decline productivity, reduced capacity utilization
and other measures especially policy reversal that sent signals of
uncertainty to potential investors”. Since the year 2000 to present
period there was a sharp decline in the foreign direct investment in
Nigeria and even portfolio investment as a result of insecurity
conditions prevalent in the country resulting from the Boko Haram
activities and other militant groups that signal the foreign investors
that Nigeria environment is no longer conducive for their
investment. For instance, the activities of the militants in the southsouth
and Boko-Haram in the North East have in no small measure
affected both foreign direct and portfolio investment in Nigeria as
the investors usually entertain the fear of either being kidnapped or
have their businesses destroyed. This no doubt has negatively
affected the economic growth and development of Nigeria.
However, the total value of foreign direct investment into
Nigeria in the first quarter of 2016 increased by 24.54 percent
according to a recent report. Foreign Direct Investment recorded a
quarterly increase of $123.16 to $ 174.46 million during the period
(National Bureau of Statistics).

Theoretical Framework
This study is anchored on the Hymers theory of foreign
Direct Investment. Hymer developed a framework that went beyond
the existing theories, explaining why this phenomenon occurred,
since he considered that the previously mentioned theories could not
explain foreign investment and its motivations. Facing the
challenges of his predecessors, Hymer focused his theory on filling
the gaps regarding international investment. The theory proposed by
the author approaches international investment from a different and
more firm-specific point of view. As opposed to traditional
macroeconomic-based theories of investment, Hymer stated that
there is a difference between mere capital investment, otherwise
known as portfolio investment, and direct investment. The
difference between the two, which will become the cornerstone of
his whole theoretical framework, is the issue of control, meaning
that with direct investment firms are able to obtain a greater level of
control than with portfolio investment. Furthermore, Hymer
proceeds to criticize the neoclassical theories, stating that the theory
of capital movements cannot explain international production.
Moreover, he clarifies that FDI is not necessarily a movement of
funds from a home country to a host country, and that it is
concentrated on particular industries within many countries. In
contrast, if interest rates were the main motive for international
investment, FDI would include many industries within fewer
Another observation made by Hymer went against what
was maintained by the neoclassical theories: foreign direct
investment is not limited to investment of excess profits abroad. In
fact, foreign direct investment can be financed through loans
obtained in the host country, payments in exchange for equity
(patents, technology, machinery etc.), and other methods. The main
determinants of FDI is side as well as growth prospectus of the
economy of the country when FDI is made. Hymer proposed some
more determinants of FDI due to criticisms, along with assuming
market and imperfections. These are as follows:
1. Firm-specific advantages: Once domestic investment was
exhausted, a firm could exploit its advantages linked to
market imperfections, which could provide the firm with

market power and competitive advantage. Further studies
attempted to explain how firms could monetize these
advantages in the form of licenses.
2. Removal of conflicts: conflict arises if a firm is already
operating in foreign market or looking to expand its
operations within the same market. He proposes that the
solution for this hurdle arose in the form of collusion,
sharing the market with rivals or attempting to acquire a
direct control of production. However, it must be taken into
account that a reduction in conflict through acquisition of
control of operations will increase the market
3. Propensity to formulate an internationalization strategy
to mitigate risk: According to his position, firms are
characterized with 3 levels of decision making: the day-today
supervision, management decision coordination and
long term strategy planning and decision making. The
extent to which a company can mitigate risk depends on
how well a firm can formulate an internationalization
strategy taking these levels of decision into account.
Hymer’s importance in the field of International Business
and Foreign Direct Investment stems from him being the first to
theorize about the existence of Multinational Enterprises (MNE) and
the reasons behind Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) beyond
macroeconomic principles, his influence on later scholars and
theories in International Business, such as the OLI (Ownership,
Location and Internationalization) theory by John Dunning and
Christos Pitelis which focuses more on transaction costs. Moreover,
“the efficiency-value creation component of FDI and MNE activity
was further strengthened by two other major scholarly developments
in the 1990s: the resource-based (RBV) and evolutionary theories”
(Dunning & Pitelis, 2008) In addition, some of his predictions later
materialized, for example, the power of supranational bodies such as
IMF or the World Bank that increases inequalities (Dunning &
Piletis, 2008).

Types of FDI
1. Horizontal FDI arises when a firm duplicates its home
country-based activities at the same value chain stage in a
host country through FDI.
2. Platform FDI Foreign direct investment from a source
country into a destination country for the purpose of
exporting to a third country.
3. Vertical FDI takes place when a firm through FDI moves
upstream or downstream in different value chains, i.e.,
when firms perform value-adding activities stage by stage
in a vertical fashion in a host country.
The foreign direct investor may acquire voting power of an
enterprise in an economy through any of the following methods:
· by incorporating a wholly owned subsidiary or company
· by acquiring shares in an associated enterprise,
· through a merger or an acquisition of an unrelated
· participating in an equity joint venture with another
investor or enterprise.
Forms of FDI incentives
Foreign direct investment incentives may take the
following forms:
· low corporate tax and individual income tax rates; tax
holidays; other types of tax concessions; preferential
tariffs; special economic zones; EPZ – Export Processing
Zones; Bonded warehouses; Maquiladoras; investment
financial subsidies.; free land or land subsidies; relocation
& expatriation; infrastructure subsidies; R&D support;
Energy; derogation from regulations (usually for very large
Governmental Investment Promotion Agencies (IPAs) use
various marketing strategies inspired by the private sector to try and
attract inward FDI, including diaspora marketing.

· By excluding the internal investment to get a profited
Classifications of Foreign Direct Investment
Anyanwu (1993) and Udu (2015) at different periods classified
direct foreign investment as to include the following:
 Export – oriented foreign investment
 Market – developing foreign investment
 Government – initiated foreign investment
Export- oriented foreign investment arises in a situation
where the foreign investors usually seek for new sources of inputs
like component parts, raw materials and even the finished goods.
Thus they look for diversified sources of raw materials which can be
sold in markets where their investments are. This form of exportoriented
foreign investment in Nigeria can be found in the areas of
petroleum industry where the American Multinational Corporations
contract crude oil that can be sold to their parent companies in the
United States.
The Market – Oriented direct foreign investment is based
on the production of goods wholly for the host country’s market.
This type of direct foreign investment depends on the host country’s
ability to manage the economy and its future prospect. Based on
this, therefore, economic policies such as tariffs, taxes, subsidies and
general degree of openness of the economy (liberalization) are
required for such investment to thrive efficiently and profitably. A
clear look at the majority of foreign direct investment will suggest
that they are of this form – market oriented.
Government imitated foreign investment arises in a
situation where the host country is the prime mover or the imitator
by providing incentives that will attract such investment such as
providing subsidies to foreign investors. No doubt, these incentives
make the investment to be attractive and such incentives include
prohibitive import restriction, preferred access to foreign exchange,
tax concessions, subsidized interest rates, income tax relief, tax
relief, tax holidays and pioneer industries scheme.
Roles of Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
Foreign direct investment which involves the process of
acquiring ownership of assets for the purpose of controlling the

production, distribution and other activities of a firm in another
country plays a very important role in Nigeria and even in other
developing countries of the world. These roles of foreign direct
investment in Nigeria include:
Employment Generation: Foreign direct investment offers
employment opportunities to two categories of people. First are the
people directly employed in the foreign direct investment
companies. Second are those people working in the servicing
companies. Thus it offers employment directly and indirectly to the
people of host countries like Nigeria. The involvement of the
citizens of the host country – Nigeria, for example, in the
management of positions leads to improvement in the quality of
Labour Compensation: Multinational corporations or companies
usually use higher pay to attract highly-skilled local workers and
enhanced quality productivity. Better incentives may also be used to
reduce staff turnover and thus reduce the risk of their productivity
advantage spilling over to competing firms.
Reduction of Environmental Problem: Foreign direct investment
can help to achieve sustainable development in Nigeria (host
countries) by reducing certain environmental problems. This results
from the ability of the Multi-national companies accessibility to
modern and environmental friendly technology. More so, the
immediate community can benefit from the corporate social
responsibility activities of the Multinational Corporations or
Backward Linkage Advantage: Local or domestic firms in the
host country – Nigeria can benefit from the inflow of foreign direct
investment. The benefit may be through engagement in subcontracting
arrangement with foreign owned firms and of skill
transfer, especially when employed workers who have acquired
experiences from the foreign based as Batra and Tan (2000) stated.
Increases Government Revenue: The tax revenue obtained or
charged on the foreign direct investment can as well increase the
federal government revenue with which it can use to improve the
social economic development of the country. This benefit can only
be actualized by making the tax system in Nigeria – the host country
to be attractive and ensuring that the revenue generated from such is
channeled towards poverty alleviation in the country.
In summary some of the roles of foreign direct investment
include thus:
· it increases some of the fruits of modern scheme and
technology in form of technological transfer from the
investing countries to Nigeria – the host country.
· It encourages the foreign entrepreneurs to invest in less
developed countries.
· The remittance of profit brings less pressure on balance of
payment as compared with portfolio investment.
· It encourages the less developed countries like Nigeria to
invest in ancillary industries servicing industries.
Inhibiting Factors for Foreign Direct Investment in Nigeria
Nigeria has an extensive market for manufactured products
and the allied services produced by foreign investors through her
large population size. In the same way she is well endowed with
many rich natural resources comprising solid minerals and
petroleum products. Though these factors enhance Nigeria’s
prospect of attracting foreign direct investment, there are a number
of inhibiting factors that may debar foreign investors from investing
in Nigeria’s environment. These include as follows:
Current external debt burden
`Increase in the external debt burden Nigeria generates huge
amount of external debt servicing which lead to strain on foreign
exchange. This might in fact affect foreign direct investment in the
country. Hence, higher external servicing burden of Nigeria has the
tendency of scaring investors away. This is more because the
situation might involve the Nigerian government to impose
restriction on profits or dividends or engage in one form of policy
that may restrict their activities. Hence, Gussinger and Squire (2016)
stated that “through debt rescheduling with debtor nations the debt
servicing may be postponed and thus allows foreign direct
investment to thrive”.

Infrastructural Development
Okun (2015) maintained “that the inadequate infrastructural
development such as inadequate network of communications, bad
roads and interrupted electricity supply are factors that may debar
foreign firms from investing in Nigerian environment”. Another
aspect of infrastructure that may affect foreign direct firm
investment is the financial infrastructure. The financial system in the
country should be well developed so as to attract foreign direct
Socio-economic Factors
Nigerian government needs to reduce the adverse effect of
socio-economic factors in order to better attract foreign direct
investments since they are the factors that affect labour productivity
directly or indirectly. These socio-economic factors include
education, healthcare, safety of private property and individuals,
discipline among the populace, democratization, transparency and
probity, cost effectiveness and incidence of drug abuse as Oresotu
(2014) Stated.
Political Instability
A country like Nigeria where there are changes in
government may not be found favourable by foreign investors and
this may affect the country’s effort to attract foreign investors. This
is because one political party may make policies that may be
favourable to foreign investors but only to discover that such
policies may be scraped off by incoming another political party. A
case in point is the policies of All Progressive Congress (APC) and
Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) as regard to foreign investment in
Thus, the point to make here is that a country that is having
a system of government that is adjudged to be politically unstable
has low prospect of attracting foreign direct investments.
Arguments in Support of Foreign Direct Investment
Anyanwu (1993) enumerated the following as some of the
arguments that necessitate the rational for foreign direct investment
in Nigeria and even in other developing nations of the world. These

– The need to filling the resource gap between desired investment and
locally mobilized saving;
– The filling of the foreign exchange gap (difference between foreign
exchange requirements and foreign earnings);
– The filling of the budgetary gap between target revenue and locally
raised revenue (e.g. taxes).
– The contribution to inadequate managerial personnel;
– The transfer of technology to Nigeria or the poor LDCs badly in need
of it. The ability of the MNCs to establish contacts with overseas
banks, market outlets, sources of supply and other institutions, which
would otherwise be unknown to the indigenous firms.
– Their ability to create more jobs and thus ameliorating the
unemployment problems.
– It may contribute to a more efficient market structure or reduce type of
monopoly profits that are enjoyed in the form of inefficiency;
– To fill the gap in entrepreneurship.
Argument against Foreign Direct Investment
The argument against foreign direct investment in Nigeria
include, though MNCs provide capital, they might diminish
domestic savings and investment rates by stifling competition,
failing to reinvest much of their profit, generating internal incomes
for those groups with lower savings propensities, impeding the
expansion of indigenous firms who may otherwise supply them with
intermediate goods by their practice of importing these products
from overseas affiliates, and imposing high interest costs on capital
borrowed by host government (Hipper 2012).
a. The MNC investment might reduce the long-run foreign
exchange earnings on both current and capital accounts despite
the initial impact of improving the recipient’s foreign exchange
position. The capital account might deteriorate due to the
overseas repatriation of profits, interest, royalties, management
fees etc. The current account might worsen due to substantial
importation of intermediate or capital goods.
b. While the MNCs do contribute to public revenue in the form of
corporate taxes they can also diminish the revenue due to liberal
tax concessions, disguised public subsidies, tariff protection,
and investment allowances provided by the host government.

c. The technology, management entrepreneurial skills and
overseas contact provided by MNCs rather than developing
local sources of these scarce skills and resources might inhibit
their development by stifling the growth of indigenous
entrepreneurship – due to the MNCs’ dominance of local
Review of Policy Measures Adopted By Nigerian Government in
Attracting Foreign Direct Investment
Nigeria Openness to and Restriction on Foreign Investment
In 1995 the Nigeria Investment Promotion Commission
Act dismantled years of controls and limits on foreign direct
investment (FDI), opening nearly all sectors to foreign direct
investment, allowing for 100 percent foreign ownership in all
sectors (with the exception of the petroleum sector, where FDI is
limited to joint ventures or production sharing contacts), and
creating the Nigeria Investment Promotion Commission (NIPC)
with a mandate to encourage and assist investment in Nigeria (Udu,
2015). The Government of Nigeria has continued to promote import
substitution policy for various reasons. In the face of dwindling
foreign exchange reserve because of lower oil prices, the
government helps to reduce demand for foreign exchange. The
government believes that trade restrictions and local content
requirements will attract investment that would develop domestic
capacity to produce and manufacture products and services that
would otherwise be imported.
The import bans and high tariffs used to advance Nigeria’s
import substitution goals have been undermined by smuggling of
targeted products (most notable rice and poultry) through the
country’s porous borders, and by corruption in the import quota
systems developed by the government to insensitize domestic
investment. Despite the government stated goal to attract
investment, investors generally find Nigeria a difficult place to do
Law/Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
The NIPC Act of 1995 allows 100 percent foreign
ownership of firms, except in the oil and gas sector where

investment is limited to joint ventures of production –sharing
agreements. The Law restricts industries to domestic investors if
they are considered crucial to national security, such as firearms,
ammunition, and military and paramilitary apparel. Foreign
investors must register with the NIPC after incorporation under the
Companies and Allied Matters Decree of 1990. The Act prohibits
the Nationalization or expropriation of foreign enterprises except in
cases of national interest. Lack of transparency in government and
corruption are endemic but the Embassy is unaware of specific
instances of interference by the government.
Nigerian laws apply equally to domestic and foreign
investors. These laws include the Nigerian Oil and Gas Content
Development Act 2010, Nigerian Minerals and Mining Act of 2007,
Nigeria Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (NEITI) Act of
2007, Central bank of Nigeria Act of 2007, Electric Power Sector
Reform Act of 2005, Money Laundering Act of 2003, Investment
and Securities Act of 2007, Foreign Exchange Act of 1995, Banking
and Other Financial Institutions Act of 1991, and National Office of
Technology Acquisition and Promotion Act of 1979.
Business Registration
Nigeria does not have an on-line single window business
registration website, as noted by Global Enterprise registration
(WWW GER. Co). The Nigerian Corporate Affairs Commission
maintains an information portal. On average, it takes 12 procedures
and 44 days to establish a foreign-owned limited liability company
(LLC) in Nigeria (Abuja), slightly faster than the regional average
for Sub-Sahara Africa. Time required is likely to vary in different
parts of the country. Only a local counsel, chartered accountant and
chattered secretaries accredited by the Corporate Affairs
Commission can incorporate companies in Nigeria. According to the
Nigerian Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous
Provisions) Act, foreign capital invested in the LLC must be
imported through an authorized dealer, which will issue a Certificate
of Capital Importation. This certificate entitled the foreign investor
to open a bank account in foreign currency. Finally, a company
engaging in international trade must get an import-export license
from the Nigeria customs service.

Industrial Strategy
Nigeria’s trade regime remains highly protectionist and
distorting with the aim of in sensitising growth in Nigeria’s
domestic industrial and agricultural capacity. Nigeria bans the
import of poultry, Pork, beef, eggs, cement, textiles, glass bottles
and numerous other items in order to protect or encourage domestic
production. In addition, the country imposes a combined and
valorem import duty (tariff plus levy) of 70 percent or higher on
more than 40 tariff product lines including tobacco products, rice,
wheat flour, sugar, salt and new passenger vehicles, high tariffs on
agricultural commodities and import bans aim to spur domestic
agricultural sector growth by actively promoting import substitution
of staples, including rice, cassava, palm oil, cocoa and cotton.
In October 2013 the government announced the National
Automotive Industry Development Plan (NAIDP) as an effort to
restart the country’s domestic automotive manufacturing sector,
create skilled jobs, develop local supply chains, and reduce
automobile imports. The central feature of the NAIDP is a 36% levy
assessed on automobile imports, over and above 35% tariff already
levied, for an effective total ad valorem duty of 70%. As an
additional incentive to promote investment in Nigeria’s auto sector,
the NAIDP allows companies that are manufacturing or assembling
cars in Nigeria to continue to import two vehicles under the former
35% tariff for every one vehicle produced in Nigeria.
Privatization Program
The Privatization and Commercialization Act of 1999
established the national Council on Privatization – the policy-making
body overseeing the privatization of state-owned enterprises (SOEs),
and the Bureau of Public Enterprises (BPE) – the implementing
agency for designated privatizations. The BPE has focused on the
privatization of key sectors, including telecommunications and
power, and calls for core investors to acquire controlling shares in
formerly state-owned enterprises.
Since 1999, the BPE has privatized and concessioned more
than 140 enterprises, including an aluminum complex, steel
complex, cement manufacturing firms, hotels, petrochemical plant,
aviation cargo handling companies, and vehicle assembly plant,
electricity generation and electricity distribution companies. The

transmission company remains state-owned, but operated by an
international operations and management contractor. Foreign
investors can and do participate in the BPE’s privatization process.
Tax concessions
1. Tax relief for research and development (R&D): Here, a
company which undertakes R & D activities in a year is
entitled to a tax-deductible allowance equal to 120 percent of
the amount expended if the research is on raw materials. Also,
the fruits of such research could be patented and protected in
accordance with internationally-accepted industrial property
rights. The aim is to promote the development of locallysourced
inputs and hence create linkage in the production
2. Pioneer Status: Companies granted ‘pioneer status’ are
entitled to tax holidays on corporate income for 3 years in the
first instance, and an extension of 2 years thereafter. To benefit
from this incentive, the relevant company (or the product) has
to be declared a pioneer industry (or pioneer product) on
application to the government. The aim is to encourage the
setting up of some industries which the government considers
beneficial to the country.
3. Corporate income tax: Incentives under corporate income tax
provisions are usually specified during the annual fiscal
budget, which in recent years have been meant to reduce the
tax burden on corporate bodies. Thus, the rate of companies
income tax rate was reduced from 45 percent to 40 percent on
dividends, interest royalties and rents were reduced. There is
also the introduction of small business tax relief under which a
lower tax rate of 20 percent will be paid by small
establishments in the manufacturing, agricultural and solid
mineral processing sectors. An additional 10 percent initial
capital allowance is granted in respect of new expenditure on
plant and machinery used in manufacturing construction, and
agricultural production as well as public transportation.
However, the introduction of preoperational levy and
minimum tax payable by companies (whether profits are
payable or not) in 1990 appears to negate these initial

incentives, though they do not apply to companies in their first
four years of operation.
4. Tax-free dividends: From 1987 any individual or company
deriving dividends from any company is entitled to tax-free
dividends for a period of 3 years if:
a. The company paying the dividend is incorporated in Nigeria;
b. The equity participation was imported in the country between
January 1, 1987 and December 31, 1992; and
c. The recipient’s equity in the company constitutes at least 10
percent of share capital of the company.
In addition to (a) – (c) above, if the company paying the
dividend is engaged in agricultural production within Nigeria or the
production of petrochemicals or Liquefied Natural Gas, the tax free
period shall be 5 years.
5. Investment in economically – disadvantaged areas: To
promote the even development of Nigeria, some areas have
been designated as economically disadvantaged. Thus, the
following policy measures consisting of special income tax and
other concessions are designed to encourage investors to locate
their activities in these areas:
a. Seven years income tax concession under the pioneer status
b. Special fiscal concessions by the relevant state
governments; and
c. Additional 5 percent (later 10 percent) on the initial capital,
depreciation allowance under the companies income tax
(Accelerated capital depreciation).
Government Foreign Policy
The extent to which foreign investment in Nigerian’s
economic environment thrive solely depends on Nigeria’s foreign
policy regarding to trade with other countries of the world as well as
her extent of globalization. Globalization is the growth in
international exchange of goods, services, and capital and the
increasing level of integration that characterize economic activity
(Reyes, 2011 & Ibrahim, 2015). Foreign policy refers to laws
regarding to the relations between one country and the other in
terms of their economic, social development and other matters.

No doubt the co-operation between two or more independent states
is formalized by way of treaties or other agreements. These formal
inter-state relations or supranational or international structures are
determined by the domestic policies or national interest pursued by
these countries. To attract foreign direct investment that will meet
the need of Nigerians, there should be a limit on her trade liberation
of certain economic activities to avoid stifling her domestic
industries. This is because trade liberalization which is the cardinal
investment of globalization ensures that industrialized nations have
access to world markets that enhance further industrialization of
industrialized countries while incapacitating the industrialized
process of the underdeveloped economics (Thornhill, 2016).
The way forward
To ensure effective attraction of foreign direct investment
in Nigeria, apart from the policies already put in place, the following
issues must be addressed properly.
i. The first is the macro-economic environment which is
substantially deregulated but remains vulnerable to
instability due to high government fiscal deficit. Hence
deviation from such authorities reduces investor’s
confidence, intensifies uncertainty and conveys false
signals as to the possibility of reversing policies to
regulation and control. To this, for instance, the recourse to
stringent control measures in 1994 has been acknowledged
to have had adverse effects. Hence the way forward here is
to be credible, resolute, predictable of policy direction in
order to ensure confidence on economic agents. The second
is the external debt. The government should through the
Bretton Wood Agreements arrange with debtor nations on
debt rescheduling that should be conducive and policies
such as Exchange Control Act to allow inflow of foreign
direct investment into the country.
ii. Security of life and property. Government should as well
create an atmosphere capable of ensuring the safety of lives
and properties. The activities of the Boko Haram in the
North and Militants group in the South-South should be
fought to the last or at least reduced to barest minimum.
Government should try to look at the needs of these groups

and if possible provide those that are reasonable for their
wellbeing and not to the detriment of the economy and
iii. Government should relax some of her policy measures.
iv. There should be liberalization of certain laws and policies
to create an enabling environment to attract foreign direct
v. Finally, government should make laws that safe guard
security of lives and properties as this would give an
assurance to the foreign investors that their investment will
be protected and be operated in a peaceful economic
The paper has attempted to examine the policy measures
that have been put in place for attracting foreign investors. The
study indicated that Nigerian government should relax some of her
policy measures so as to attract foreign investments since no nation
can achieve adequate economic growth and development in the
absence of foreign investments.
The study concluded that there is the need for liberalization
of certain laws and policies that would create an enabling
environment for attracting foreign investments and that the
government should endeavor to deal with those inhibiting factors
already stated therein so as to ensure adequate policy measures to
attract direct foreign investments.
Since the relevance of macro-economic conditions that
reflect opportunities for investment, risk market conditions and rates
of return imposes a great challenge to policy makers, the paper, thus
recommends that the acquired autonomy of the Central Bank of
Nigeria should help in the pursuance of a purposeful monetary and
fiscal policies that would make these macro-economic conditions
very conducive and adequate for the inflow of foreign direct
investment in Nigeria.
The paper also recommends that in addition to the mere
quantitative macro-economic impact, Nigeria needs to evaluate

other development conditions of the type of foreign direct
investment it is attracting.
Anyanwu, J. C. (1993): Monetary Economics: Theory, Policy and
Institutions (Onitsha-Hybrid Publishers).
Batra, G. & Hong Tan (2000), Inter-firm Linkages and Productivity
Growth: Evidence from Malaysian Manufacturing.
Washington DC: World Bank.
Deininger, K. Squire (1996), “A New Data Set for Measuring
Income inequality”, the World Bank Economic Review,
2(10) 20-25.
Dunning, J. & pitelies, C.N(2008) Stephen Hymer’s Contribution to
International business scholarship and assessment and
extension. Journal of international Business studies,
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Investment in Nigeria, 1960-1994 final Report Submitted
to the AERC, Nairobi, Kenya.
Essien, E.A & Onwioduoke, E.A. (1999) Capital flows to Nigeria:
issues and determinants proceedings of the 8th Annual
Confernce of the Zonal Research Units.
Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2012) Industrial Policy of Nigeria:
Policies Incentives, Guidelines and Institutional
framework. Federal ministry of Industries Abuja.
Guisinger, E. (2012): Attracting and controlling foreign investment,
economic impact, Journal of Economic Studies 5(4) 12-15.
Hipper, C. (2012). Multinational Corporations, the polities of the
world economy, and their effects on women’s health in the
developing world: A review, Health care for Women
International, 23(2) 861-869.
Ibrahim, M.I (2015). The effects of globalization on the
Development of Underdeveloped economics
accessed 14/4/2018 p. 14.
Njoku (2015) Savers and investment in Nigeria: Journal of financial
Institutions 10(2), 15- 28.

Oku J. N. (2015): Building on Foreign Direct Investment for
Sustainable Development: Journal of economic research,
5(4) 45-55.
Onwioduokit (1998): International capital mobility to Nigeria in the
Next Millennium “Journal of the Financial Institution
Training Centre” 5(2)15-20.
Oresotu, F.O. (2014). The role of Central Bank in the Acquisition of
foreign Technology for National Development Economic
and Financial Review Central Bank of Nigeria 3(2)15-20.
Petrovid- R.M. (2013). “Foreign Direct Investment and Sustainable
Development: An Analysis of the impact of Environmental
Regulations on Investment Local Decisions”, Facta
Univesitatis, 4(2) 183-190.
Reyes, G.E (2011): Globalization and foreign policy in developing
countries, Journal of International Relations 4(2), 18-25.
Thornhill (2016) “Globalization Administrative effects for Africa”,
African Journal of Public Affairs, 1(1) 142.
Udu, Z. A. (2015) Economic and Political factors Inhibitions foreign
direct investment in Nigeria: Journal of Economics and
Management Studies 5(2) 14-20.


The Role of Music in Education and Politics
Department of Music
Nwafor Orizu College of Education,
Music exists everywhere and in daily activities. People listen to
music when driving, studying or relaxing as well as in commercial
circles. Music has the ability to move people in many mysterious
ways. It is one of the greatest industries in the world. According to
International Federation of the Phonography Industry, the music
industry sales was $5.8 billion and performance rights revenue is
growing the fastest to $ 943 million (up from $862 million in 2011).
In the emerging world, people are exploring different kinds of music
to fit their taste. This study discussed the undeniable role of music in
education and education as well as in politics.
Key Words: Music and Mind, Music and Education, Music and
Music is the way in which people express and share
themselves with others. When people are able to share their opinions
with others, Africa musicians can encourage people to try harder
and overcome daily life challenges and reach for higher goals.
Music can also draw attention to African countries and show
citizens in developed countries that Africa is a growing continent
not just sad stories for the world to listen to. In addition to the
increasing use of the internet, it is easier to spread and create a new
movement in music. Apart from record sales, music can draw other
kinds of revenue such as concerts, tourist and sales of bund
merchandise. The growth in these sectors will create more jobs in

the local job market and in Africa as a whole. Besides, the monetary
effect of music on the economy, music can also have an effect on
people’s mindset (Phong, 2014). Music plays an important role in
our psyche and composure. Good music balances our mind and
helps build a sensitive and open mind. Bad music on the other hand,
drives the psyche into a state of overexcitement; this state of mind is
like a closed loop in that it prevents us from accessing our centre,
the infinite in us.
A mind that is regularly bombarded with modern music
cannot be reached by educational wisdom because it knows no
silence, and there is no inner space of rest and quiet contemplation.
This in turn leads to shallow thought and lacking understanding of
life and the world; such a mind stays at the periphery of things and
Music and the Mind
The effect of music on the child’s mind can be assessed
under two angles: active and passive. We all suffer music passively
at certain places: in the café, in the cinema, in the supermarket, in
department stores, and nowadays also, in air ports, post offices,
public halls and subway stations; without even talking about
nightclubs and discos where loud aggressive music is considered to
be a stimulant.
Walter (2015) opined that “most people never bother about
how such music affects their psyche”. He also explained how
sensitive he was since his childhood days to the impact of music on
his mind and body. The outcomes of his findings were that music
causes the following symptoms on organism: restlessness,
incapacity to form clear thoughts, strong sweating of hands and feet,
anxiety, anger or even rage, sudden claustrophobia, to mention a
Research on sound healing by Goldman (2002) has shown
that music directly affects our emotions, our mind and our thoughts.
Also, scientific research on sound and memory by Manly (2003) has
shown that when two different sound stimuli impact upon our
psyche, our subconscious mind will register the underlying stimulus
or music, not the dominant one.
GeorgiLozanov (2013), a psychiatrist from Bulgaria, has
positively used this specific characteristic of our brain to design a

revolutionary method for learning foreign language, originally
called “suggestopedia”, and today sold under the brand name “super
Music and Education
Actively, music plays a role in education, in teaching
musical structure, and the notion of time, and how time transforms
emotional space. This was even a topic dear to traditional education,
at a time when score of reading and playing a musical instrument
was still considered good and useful for the education of children
from well-to-do families. But, unfortunately, in most countries
today, this positive and important tradition has been almost entirely
lost, except in costly private institutions for the education of upperclass
The reason for this change is probably because of the fact
that children today only in rare cases have musical instruments like
piano, violin, etc at their own disposal, and most parents find
acoustic musical instruments bulky, noisy or too expensive. Most
parents do not see the value of sending their children to musical
classes. In addition, television has become a replacement for
parental care and instruction. The situation now is clearly a major
cultural deterioration that shall have consequences on the general
education level, and the level of sensitiveness of our whole
In the learning sphere, students are put in a relaxed state of
mind, seated in comfortable arm chairs, while baroque string music
are played over the musical carpet which is the dominant sound,.
The teacher recites in the foreign language, as an underlying sound,
while the students are told not to listen to the speech, but
concentrate on the music, and breathe in the rhythm of the music.
With this revolutionary method, people learn difficult languages
such Arabic, French, Spanish, Russian or Chinese without any
accent in two or three months. Lozano (2003) used the technique
originally for teaching, reading and writing to school children and
found that, in the regular case, a child would learn to perfectly read
and write in about six months only.
The key to fast learning is our subconscious mind, and also
our access during self-hypnosis, to the universal library of the
collective unconscious where all grammars are stored and a lot more

knowledge. Music is instrumental not just in learning foreign
language, but in learning of grammar, pronunciation, syntax and all
that is needed to speak and understand that language. However,
there are music that should be used for educational purposes and
those that should not. A loving and caring educator is always alert to
protect children from things or activities that are really harmful,
while being permissive regarding others. It is the wisdom and
experience of a good educator to know where the limits are, and
how to distinguish harmful from harmless activities, and to assess
potential danger. Any extreme taken when doing such an assessment
leads to either accidents that could have been avoided or it renders
the child anxious and withdrawn because of overprotection.
Doing a sane education in an insane society is truly a
challenge. It requires all our commitment, and it requires constant
learning. We can do it only if we have a real passion for education
and the wellbeing of children, for if we do not derive an intrinsic
pleasure from it, we will not be ready to cash in all the frustrations
that inevitably go along with such a professional choice. The
profession of the educator is not a place in the sun, and how much
less in a society that works counter to sane education, and to sane
educators (Harvey, 2008). It is a struggle, but the struggle has a deep
meaning for it connects us with the children. For a child, growing up
is in most cases not a nice experience, as many people wrongly
believe. This is even much truer in the case of gifted children, and it
is about those children that this paper is all about for ordinary
children have very little interest to invest time and energy over years
for learning and mastering a musical instrument.
Experience has also taught me that if children are not really
musically gifted, it is a torture for them to learn playing an
instrument, for as we know, musical performance requires much
sacrifice, consistency, and a basic mastering of stage fright and
negative emotion in the form of recurring frustration. It is only
when children experience a genuine enjoyment with music that they
build the endurance to master a musical instrument with all that this
entails over long period of time. When the child is talented, the child
does not need to be much encouraged, as genius has a built-in ability
for realizing himself. Another essential benefit of studying music is
that children learn musical logic which is pure cosmic logic

comparable to mathematical logic, and the child’s mind will gain in
clarity and clear communication ability.
In my long years of experience with musical performance
and composition, and having met many musicians in my life, I can
affirm that among all possible people from all possible cultures I
met in my life, musicians are by far the clearest, intelligent and most
wistful people, and also the most harmonious people. Their
emotional life is balanced. There is another benefit for children who
learn a musical instrument: they become more humble, because they
learn that all great mastery is to be paid with sweat and tears. While
genius certainly is inborn, it needs to be developed through mastery
and self-expression, and a lot of persistence. This explains why
children who perform early in life are more disciplined, more
mature and more sensitive than the average children. They also tend
to be more responsible in their daily dealings with others and they
understand others better than ordinary children.
In contrast, a child who only plays all daylong and was
never exposed to any musical training or instrument, a sport, a
computer, or anything else of value, will never attain the brilliance
and elegance of children who are on their way to genius. In most
cases, these masses of children remain mediocre consumers who
regard life as a residual concept, or a set of standard behaviors,
without penetrating into the depth of life and soul, and without
participating in the cosmic drama of living. That is why learning a
musical instrument and getting involved in musical performance as
a long-term endeavor is one of the greatest and most intelligent
ways of achieving to become a complete human.
Albert Einstein is a vivid example that comes to mind, as it
shows that somebody who loves music and is a brilliant violinist
does not need to make a musical career. But, the genius, Einstein is
unthinkable being a genial musician as a physicist, and a genial
freak in the music. That is the secret of genius, it is not one-sided,
but a cosmic inner setup that somehow embraces the whole of
creation in one flash of insight that lasts a lifetime.
Music and Politics
The connection between music and politics, particularly
political expression in songs, has been seen in many cultures.
Although music influences political movements and rituals, it is not

clear how or to what extent general audience relate to music on a
political level (Abraham, 2004). Music can express antiestablishment
or protest themes, including anti-war songs, but proestablishment
ideas are also represented, for example, in National
Anthems, patriotic songs, and political campaigns. Many of these
types of songs could be described as topical songs. Songs can be
used to portray a specific political message. However, there may be
barriers to the transmission of such message; even overtly political
songs are often shaped by referencing their contemporary political
context, making an understanding of the history and events that
inspired the music necessary in order to fully comprehend the
The nature of that message can also be ambiguous because
the label, “political music”, can be applied either to songs that
merely observe political subjects, songs which offer a partisan
opinion, or songs which go further and advocate for specific
political action. Thus, a distinction has been made, for example,
between the use of music as a tool for raising awareness, and music
as advocacy. Furthermore, some forms of music may be deemed
political by cultural association, irrespective of political content, as
‘The Beatles’ were censored by the state in the Eastern Bloc in the
1960s and 1970s, while being embraced by younger people as
symbol of social change (Damon, 2009).
Pedelty and Keefe (2016) argue that “it is not clear to what
extent the political message in and around music, motivate fans,
because it is a catalyst for discussion or function aesthetically”.
Popular music can help bring people together to form effective
political communities. Recent research by Robin (2009) has
suggested that in many schools, including in modern democratic
nations, music education has sometimes been used for the
ideological purpose of instilling patriotism in children; and that
particularly during wartime, patriotic singing can escalate to inspire
destructive jingoism (Burchill, 2010).
Plato, a great philosopher, once opined that musical
innovation is full of danger to the whole state, and ought to be
prohibited. When modes of music change, the fundamental laws of
the state always change with them. This was written as a warning
that music is much more than just melodies and harmonies but a
much more important movement in the life of all human beings.

This paper has carefully elaborated the various
ways through which music has enhanced the educational and
political horizons of individuals. However, there are lots of
untapped potentials from music, of which, this paper has passed
the message so as to enlighten the masses on them. It is
noteworthy that music not only plays the role of entertainment,
but also features in medicine and psychology for the mind, body
and soul. Music plays an invaluable role in education and
politics. It plays a vital role in education, as children who are
exposed to musical instruments and environments are seen to be
more brilliant and better composed than their counterparts who
are trained outsides musical environments. Also, in politics,
music plays informative and advocacy role, as the masses relay
their message to the government and other relevant authorizes,
in most cases, through music and vice versa.
It is quite visible to the blind and laudable to the deaf that
the roles music plays in education and politics are invaluable.
Nigeria in particular has experienced a lot of calm in its political
spheres for years now due to the sanity brought about by peaceful
voices of concerned musicians, through songs. Therefore, the
following suggestions if implemented wholly will help boost the
educational and political sphere of the country via music:
1. The school authorities should make music a compulsory
subject in the 9-3-4 system of education in Nigeria. This
will help the students and pupils to harness the viable roles
of music properly.
2. The government should help censor the music that are been
released in the country so as to ban those that are antiproductive.
This will help reduce the political tension
which music sometimes has subjected everyone to. It will
also reduce the negative effects of immoral songs on the
3. Every parent should endeavor to get at least one musical
instrument for every child, as this has been observed to be
effective in developing the psyche of children, even adults.

Music is really a food for the soul and everyone needs it
daily, for emotional and mental sanity.
4. Musicians should desist from using music to arouse tension
in the environment, as music should be informative,
educative and a source of soothing relief to the soul of the
listener. Let the purpose of music be the message they are
relaying and not otherwise.
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supremacists. www. word press. org.
Burchill, P. T. (2010). Popular culture and revolutionary
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Lozasv, G. (2013). The Oxford history of western music. New York:
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Manly, E. (2003). The twisted muse. New York: Oxford University
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Africa. www. Retrieved 10/11/2017.
Robin, D. (2009). When the music is over. London: Faber and Faber.
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